音频采集 via FFmpeg

音频采集 via FFmpeg

  • FFmpeg 简介
  • FFmpeg 命令行采集音频
  • FFmpeg API 采集音频
    • 音频重采样
    • 采集音频代码
      • open_cap_device 函数
        • enum_dshow_acap_devices 函数
      • open_output_audio_file 函数
        • open_output_file 函数
        • init_audio_encoder 函数
      • audio_transcode 函数
        • decode_a_frame 函数
          • read_decode_convert_and_store 函数
            • decode_av_frame 函数
        • load_encode_and_write 函数
          • read_samples_from_fifo 函数
          • encode_av_frame 函数
      • flush_encoder 函数
  • 其他框架下的采集

FFmpeg 简介

FFmpeg 是一套可以用来记录、转换数字音频、视频,并能将其转化为流的开源计算机程序。采用 LGPL 或 GPL 许可证。它提供了录制、转换以及流化音视频的完整解决方案。它包含了非常先进的音频 / 视频编解码库 libavcodec,为了保证高可移植性和编解码质量,libavcodec 里很多 code 都是从头开发的。

FFmpeg 在 Linux 平台下开发,但它同样也可以在其它操作系统环境中编译运行,包括 Windows、Mac OS X 等。这个项目最早由 Fabrice Bellard 发起,2004 年至 2015 年间由 Michael Niedermayer 主要负责维护。许多 FFmpeg 的开发人员都来自 MPlayer 项目,而且当前 FFmpeg 也是放在 MPlayer 项目组的服务器上。项目的名称来自 MPEG 视频编码标准,前面的 “FF” 代表 “Fast Forward”。

FFmpeg 命令行采集音频

FFmpeg 提供了现成的程序用命令行的方式对音频进行采集。

  • 首先需要枚举电脑上的音频采集设备:
>ffmpeg.exe -list_devices true -f dshow -i dummy
… …
[dshow @ 007bd020] DirectShow video devices (some may be both video and audio devices)
[dshow @ 007bd020]  “USB Web Camera - HD"
[dshow @ 007bd020]     Alternative name "@device_pnp_\\?\usb#vid_1bcf&pid_288e&mi_00#7&6c75a67&0&0000#{65e8773d-8f56-11d0-a3b9-00a0c9223196}\global"
[dshow @ 003cd000] DirectShow audio devices
[dshow @ 003cd000]  "Microphone (Realtek High Defini"
[dshow @ 003cd000]     Alternative name "@device_cm_{33D9A762-90C8-11D0-BD43-00A0C911CE86}\Microphone (Realtek High Defini“

在我的电脑上有两个采集设备,一个是用来采集视频的摄像头,一个是用来采集音频的麦克风“Microphone (Realtek High Defini ”(此处名称因为太长被截断)。

  • 然后选择麦克风设备进行采集
>ffmpeg.exe -f dshow -i audio="Microphone (Realtek High Defini" d:\test.mp3 
... ...
Guessed Channel Layout for Input Stream #0.0 : stereo
Input #0, dshow, from 'audio=Microphone (Realtek High Defini':
  Duration: N/A, start: 38604.081000, bitrate: 1411 kb/s
    Stream #0:0: Audio: pcm_s16le, 44100 Hz, stereo, s16, 1411 kb/s
Stream mapping:
  Stream #0:0 -> #0:0 (pcm_s16le (native) -> mp3 (libmp3lame))
Press [q] to stop, [?] for help
Output #0, mp3, to 'd:\test.mp3':
  Metadata:
    TSSE            : Lavf57.71.100
    Stream #0:0: Audio: mp3 (libmp3lame), 44100 Hz, stereo, s16p
    Metadata:
      encoder       : Lavc57.89.100 libmp3lame
size=102kB time=00:00:06.48 bitrate=128.7kbits/s speed=2.13x ← 正在录制的音频信息,会实时变化

FFmpeg 在 Windows 上用的是 DirectShow 输入设备进行采集的,然后经由自己的 mp3 encoder 和 file writer 写到磁盘上。

FFmpeg API 采集音频

FFmpeg 还提供了完备的 API 对音频进行采集。

下面是使用 FFmpeg 采集并编码音频的流程图。使用该流程,可以编码 MP3、AAC、FLAC 等等各种 FFmpeg 支持的音频。
音频采集 via FFmpeg_第1张图片

音频重采样

音频重采样 是转换已采样的音频数据的过程,比如当输入输出数据的采样率不一致时,或者声道数不一致时,就需要重采样。音频重采样主要步骤是进行抽取或插值。由于抽取可能产生混叠,插值可能产生镜像,因此需要在抽取前进行抗混叠滤波,在插值后进行抗镜像滤波。抗混叠滤波和抗镜像滤波都是使用低通滤波器实现。

FFmpeg 提供了重采样的 API,主要流程如下:

swr_alloc_set_opts
swr_init
swr_convert
swr_free

采集音频代码

以下是整个 FFmpeg 采集过程的概要代码,略去各个函数的具体实现和资源释放。

本文中的代码基于 FFmpeg 4.1。

hr = open_cap_device(AVMEDIA_TYPE_AUDIO, &cap_fmt_ctx, &cap_codec_ctx);
GOTO_IF_FAILED(hr);

hr = open_output_audio_file(out_file, cap_codec_ctx, &out_fmt_ctx, &enc_ctx);
GOTO_IF_FAILED(hr);

hr = init_resampler(cap_codec_ctx, enc_ctx, &resample_ctx);
GOTO_IF_FAILED(hr);

hr = init_fifo(&fifo, enc_ctx);
GOTO_IF_FAILED(hr);

hr = avformat_write_header(out_fmt_ctx, NULL);
GOTO_IF_FAILED(hr);

while (_kbhit() == 0) { // Infinitely capture audio until a key input.
    int finished = 0;
    hr = audio_transcode( cap_fmt_ctx, cap_codec_ctx, out_fmt_ctx, enc_ctx,
            	      fifo, resample_ctx, 0, &finished, false, true );
    GOTO_IF_FAILED(hr);
    if (finished)
        break;
}

flush_encoder(out_fmt_ctx, enc_ctx);

hr = av_write_trailer(out_fmt_ctx);
GOTO_IF_FAILED(hr);

open_cap_device 函数

在 Windows 上 FFmpeg 使用 DirectShow 的设备进行采集,这里我们先枚举所有的设备,然后选用第一个成功初始化的设备。

int open_cap_device(
    AVMediaType cap_type,
    AVFormatContext **cap_fmt_ctx, 
    AVCodecContext **cap_codec_ctx,
    AVDictionary** options = NULL)
{
    RETURN_IF_NULL(cap_fmt_ctx);
    RETURN_IF_NULL(cap_codec_ctx);
    *cap_fmt_ctx = NULL;
    *cap_codec_ctx = NULL;
    int hr = -1;
    std::string cap_device_name;
    std::vector<std::wstring> cap_devices;

    avdevice_register_all();
    CoInitialize(NULL);

    AVInputFormat* input_fmt = av_find_input_format("dshow");
    GOTO_IF_NULL(input_fmt);

    switch (cap_type) {
    case AVMEDIA_TYPE_AUDIO:
        cap_device_name = "audio=";
        hr = enum_dshow_acap_devices(cap_devices);
        break;
    }
    GOTO_IF_FAILED(hr);

    cap_device_name += unicodeToUtf8(cap_devices[0].c_str());
    hr = avformat_open_input(cap_fmt_ctx, cap_device_name.c_str(), input_fmt, options);
    GOTO_IF_FAILED(hr);

    hr = avformat_find_stream_info(*cap_fmt_ctx, NULL);
    GOTO_IF_FAILED(hr);

    for (unsigned int i = 0; i < (*cap_fmt_ctx)->nb_streams; i++) {
        AVCodecParameters* codec_par = (*cap_fmt_ctx)->streams[i]->codecpar;
        if (codec_par->codec_type == cap_type) {
            av_dump_format(*cap_fmt_ctx, i, NULL, 0);

            AVCodec* decoder = avcodec_find_decoder(codec_par->codec_id);
            GOTO_IF_NULL(decoder);

            *cap_codec_ctx = avcodec_alloc_context3(decoder);
            GOTO_IF_NULL(*cap_codec_ctx);

            /** initialize the stream parameters with demuxer information */
            hr = avcodec_parameters_to_context(*cap_codec_ctx, codec_par);
            GOTO_LABEL_IF_FAILED(hr, OnErr);

            hr = avcodec_open2(*cap_codec_ctx, decoder, NULL);
            GOTO_IF_FAILED(hr);

            break;
        }
    }
    GOTO_IF_NULL(*cap_codec_ctx);

    hr = 0;
RESOURCE_FREE:
    CoUninitialize();
    return hr;

OnErr:
    avformat_free_context(*cap_fmt_ctx);
    *cap_fmt_ctx = NULL;

    if (NULL != *cap_codec_ctx)
        avcodec_free_context(cap_codec_ctx);

    goto RESOURCE_FREE;
}

enum_dshow_acap_devices 函数

下面是使用 DShow 的 API 对音频采集设备进行枚举。

HRESULT enum_dshow_acap_devices(std::vector<std::wstring>& devices)
{
    return enum_dshow_devices(CLSID_AudioInputDeviceCategory, devices);
}

HRESULT enum_dshow_devices(const IID& deviceCategory, std::vector<std::wstring>& devices)
{
    HRESULT hr = E_FAIL;
    CComPtr <ICreateDevEnum> pDevEnum =NULL;
    CComPtr <IEnumMoniker> pClassEnum = NULL;
    CComPtr<IMoniker> pMoniker =NULL;
    ULONG cFetched = 0;

    hr = CoCreateInstance(CLSID_SystemDeviceEnum, NULL, CLSCTX_INPROC, IID_ICreateDevEnum, (void**)&pDevEnum);
    RETURN_IF_FAILED(hr);

    hr = pDevEnum->CreateClassEnumerator(deviceCategory, &pClassEnum, 0);
    RETURN_IF_FAILED(hr);
    // If there are no enumerators for the requested type, then
    // CreateClassEnumerator will succeed, but pClassEnum will be NULL.
    RETURN_IF_NULL(pClassEnum);

    while (S_OK == (pClassEnum->Next(1, &pMoniker, &cFetched))) {
        CComPtr<IPropertyBag> pPropertyBag = NULL;
        hr = pMoniker->BindToStorage(NULL, NULL, IID_IPropertyBag, (void**)&pPropertyBag);
        pMoniker = NULL;
        if (FAILED(hr))
            continue;

        CComVariant friendlyName;
        friendlyName.vt = VT_BSTR;
        hr = pPropertyBag->Read(L"FriendlyName", &friendlyName, NULL) ;
        if (SUCCEEDED(hr)) {
            std::wstring strFriendlyName(friendlyName.bstrVal);
            devices.push_back(strFriendlyName);
        }
    }
    RETURN_IF_TRUE(devices.empty(), E_FAIL);

    return S_OK;
}

open_output_audio_file 函数

打开一个输出文件并初始化音频编码器。

int open_output_audio_file(
    const char *file_name,
    AVCodecContext *dec_ctx,
    AVFormatContext **out_fmt_ctx,
    AVCodecContext **enc_ctx)
{
    RETURN_IF_NULL(enc_ctx);
    int hr = -1;

    AVCodecContext *codec_ctx = NULL;
    hr = open_output_file(file_name, dec_ctx->codec_type, out_fmt_ctx, &codec_ctx);
    RETURN_IF_FAILED(hr);
    
    hr = init_audio_encoder(dec_ctx->sample_rate, *out_fmt_ctx, 0, codec_ctx);
    GOTO_LABEL_IF_FAILED(hr, OnErr);

    *enc_ctx = codec_ctx;
    return 0;

OnErr:
    avcodec_free_context(&codec_ctx);
    avio_closep(&(*out_fmt_ctx)->pb);
    avformat_free_context(*out_fmt_ctx);
    *out_fmt_ctx = NULL;
    *enc_ctx = NULL;
    return hr;
}

open_output_file 函数

通过文件后缀名 guess 一个最适合的编码器。

int open_output_file(
    const char *file_name,
    AVMediaType stream_type,
    AVFormatContext **out_fmt_ctx,
    AVCodecContext **enc_ctx )
{
    RETURN_IF_NULL(file_name);
    RETURN_IF_NULL(out_fmt_ctx);
    RETURN_IF_NULL(enc_ctx);
    int hr = -1;

    AVIOContext *output_io_ctx = NULL;
    /** Open the output file to write to it. */
    hr = avio_open(&output_io_ctx, file_name, AVIO_FLAG_WRITE);
    RETURN_IF_FAILED(hr);

    /** Create a new format context for the output container format. */
    *out_fmt_ctx = avformat_alloc_context();
    RETURN_IF_NULL(*out_fmt_ctx);

    /** Associate the output file (pointer) with the container format context. */
    (*out_fmt_ctx)->pb = output_io_ctx;

    /** Guess the desired container format based on the file extension. */
    (*out_fmt_ctx)->oformat = av_guess_format(NULL, file_name, NULL);
    GOTO_LABEL_IF_NULL((*out_fmt_ctx)->oformat, OnErr);

    char*& url = (*out_fmt_ctx)->url;
    if (NULL == url)
        url = av_strdup(file_name); 

    /** Find the encoder to be used by its name. */
    AVCodecID out_codec_id = AV_CODEC_ID_NONE;
    switch (stream_type) {
    case AVMEDIA_TYPE_AUDIO:
        out_codec_id = (*out_fmt_ctx)->oformat->audio_codec;
        break;
    }
    
    int stream_idx = add_stream_and_alloc_enc(out_codec_id, *out_fmt_ctx, enc_ctx);
    GOTO_LABEL_IF_FALSE(stream_idx >= 0, OnErr);

    return 0;
OnErr:
    avio_closep(&(*out_fmt_ctx)->pb);
    avformat_free_context(*out_fmt_ctx);
    *out_fmt_ctx = NULL;
    *enc_ctx = NULL;
    return hr;
}

init_audio_encoder 函数

初始化音频的一些基本参数如:声道、采样率、比特率、时间戳基准等。

int init_audio_encoder(
    int sample_rate, 
    const AVFormatContext* out_fmt_ctx,
    unsigned int audio_stream_idx,
    AVCodecContext *codec_ctx,
    AVSampleFormat sample_fmt = AV_SAMPLE_FMT_NONE,
    uint64_t channel_layout = AV_CH_FRONT_LEFT | AV_CH_FRONT_RIGHT,
    int64_t bit_rate = 64000 )
{
    int hr = -1;
    RETURN_IF_NULL(codec_ctx);
    RETURN_IF_NULL(out_fmt_ctx);
    RETURN_IF_FALSE(audio_stream_idx < out_fmt_ctx->nb_streams);

     /**
     * Set the basic encoder parameters.
     * The input file's sample rate is used to avoid a sample rate conversion.
     */
    codec_ctx->channel_layout = channel_layout;
    codec_ctx->channels       = av_get_channel_layout_nb_channels(channel_layout);
    codec_ctx->sample_rate    = sample_rate;
    codec_ctx->sample_fmt     = (sample_fmt != AV_SAMPLE_FMT_NONE) ? sample_fmt : codec_ctx->codec->sample_fmts[0];
    codec_ctx->bit_rate       = bit_rate;
    /** Allow the use of the experimental encoder */
    codec_ctx->strict_std_compliance = FF_COMPLIANCE_EXPERIMENTAL;
    codec_ctx->time_base.den  = sample_rate;
    codec_ctx->time_base.num  = 1;
    /**
     * Some container formats (like MP4) require global headers to be present
     * Mark the encoder so that it behaves accordingly.
     */
    if (out_fmt_ctx->oformat->flags & AVFMT_GLOBALHEADER)
        codec_ctx->flags |= AV_CODEC_FLAG_GLOBAL_HEADER;

    AVStream* stream = out_fmt_ctx->streams[audio_stream_idx];
    stream->time_base = codec_ctx->time_base;

    /** Open the encoder for the audio stream to use it later. */
    hr = avcodec_open2(codec_ctx, codec_ctx->codec, NULL);
    RETURN_IF_FAILED(hr);

    hr = avcodec_parameters_from_context(stream->codecpar, codec_ctx);
    RETURN_IF_FAILED(hr);

    return 0;
}

audio_transcode 函数

理论上我们采集的是 Raw PCM 数据,不需要 decode,直接可以 encode,但考虑到要使用 fifo 和 resampler,且为了和真正的 transcoding 共用代码,故封装成了 audio_transcode 函数并在采集时也调用。

注意:解码后的音频数据不能直接编码,而是要经过一个 FIFO(先入先出队列),这是因为音频编解码的 frame 大小往往是不一样的(视频 frame 大小狭义上是一样的,但格式(RGB,YUV 等)可能不一样)。

int audio_transcode(
    AVFormatContext* in_fmt_ctx,
    AVCodecContext* dec_ctx,
    AVFormatContext* out_fmt_ctx,
    AVCodecContext* enc_ctx,
    AVAudioFifo* fifo, 
    SwrContext* resample_ctx,
    int aud_stream_index,
    int* finished,
    bool interleaved = false,
    bool init_pts = false)
{
    int hr = -1;
    audio_base_info out_aud_info(enc_ctx);

    hr = decode_a_frame(in_fmt_ctx, dec_ctx, &out_aud_info, fifo, resample_ctx, aud_stream_index, finished);
    RETURN_IF_FAILED(hr);

    /**
    * If we have enough samples for the encoder, we encode them.
    * At the end of the file, we pass the remaining samples to the encoder.
    */
    while (av_audio_fifo_size(fifo) >= enc_ctx->frame_size ||
            (*finished && av_audio_fifo_size(fifo) > 0)) {
        /**
        * Take one frame worth of audio samples from the FIFO buffer,
        * encode it and write it to the output file.
        */
        hr = load_encode_and_write(fifo, out_fmt_ctx, enc_ctx, &out_aud_info, interleaved, init_pts);
        RETURN_IF_FAILED(hr);
    }

    /**
    * If we are at the end of the input file and have encoded
    * all remaining samples, we can exit this loop and finish.
    */
    if (*finished)
        flush_encoder(out_fmt_ctx, enc_ctx, interleaved, init_pts);

    return 0;
}

decode_a_frame 函数

此处只是解码的外层 wrapper。

int decode_a_frame(
    AVFormatContext* in_fmt_ctx,
    AVCodecContext* dec_ctx,
    audio_base_info* out_aud_info,    
    AVAudioFifo* fifo,
    SwrContext* resample_ctx,
    int audio_stream_index,
    int* finished)
{
    int hr = AVERROR_EXIT;

    /* Make sure that there is one frame worth of samples in the FIFO
    * buffer so that the encoder can do its work.
    * Since the decoder's and the encoder's frame size may differ, we
    * need to FIFO buffer to store as many frames worth of input samples
    * that they make up at least one frame worth of output samples. */
    while (av_audio_fifo_size(fifo) < out_aud_info->frame_size) {
        /* Decode one frame worth of audio samples, convert it to the
        * output sample format and put it into the FIFO buffer. */
        hr = read_decode_convert_and_store(fifo, in_fmt_ctx, dec_ctx, out_aud_info,
            resample_ctx, audio_stream_index, finished);
        RETURN_IF_FAILED(hr);

        if (*finished)
            break;
    }
    return hr;
}
read_decode_convert_and_store 函数

继续 wrapper。

int read_decode_convert_and_store(
    AVAudioFifo *fifo,
    AVFormatContext *in_fmt_ctx,
    AVCodecContext *dec_ctx,
    audio_base_info* out_aud_info,
    SwrContext *resampler_ctx,
    int audio_stream_index,
    int *finished)
{
    RETURN_IF_NULL(finished);

    /** Temporary storage of the input samples of the frame read from the file. */
    std::vector<AVFrame*> decoded_frames;
    int hr = AVERROR_EXIT;

    /** Decode one frame worth of audio samples. */
    hr = decode_av_frame(in_fmt_ctx, dec_ctx, audio_stream_index, decoded_frames, finished);
    /**
     * If we are at the end of the file and there are no more samples
     * in the decoder which are delayed, we are actually finished.
     * This must not be treated as an error.
     */
    if (*finished && decoded_frames.empty()) {
        hr = 0;
        goto RESOURCE_FREE;
    }

    if (FAILED(hr) && decoded_frames.empty())
        GOTO_IF_FAILED(hr);

    /** If there is decoded data, convert and store it */
    for (size_t i = 0; i < decoded_frames.size(); ++i) {
        AVFrame* frame = decoded_frames[i];
        hr = resample_and_store(frame, dec_ctx->sample_rate, out_aud_info, resampler_ctx, fifo);
        GOTO_IF_FAILED(hr);
    }

    hr = 0;
RESOURCE_FREE:
    for (size_t i = 0; i < decoded_frames.size(); ++i)
        av_frame_free(&decoded_frames[i]);

    return hr;
}
decode_av_frame 函数

终于找到你了,亲爱的解码函数,不过她其实也是 FFmpeg 的终极 wrapper -_-!
注意:此处已经抛弃了 legacy 的 avcodec_decode_audio4,而是使用 avcodec_send_packet 和 avcodec_receive_frame,具体请参考 官方文档。

int decode_av_frame(
    AVFormatContext *in_fmt_ctx,
    AVCodecContext *dec_ctx,
    int stream_index, // -1 means any stream
    std::vector<AVFrame*>& frames,
    int *finished)
{
    RETURN_IF_NULL(in_fmt_ctx);
    RETURN_IF_NULL(dec_ctx);
    RETURN_IF_NULL(finished);
    *finished = 0;
    AVFrame *frame = NULL;
    /** Packet used for temporary storage. */
    AVPacket in_pkt;
    int hr = -1;

    init_packet(&in_pkt);

    while (true) {
        /** Read one frame from the input file into a temporary packet. */
        hr = av_read_frame(in_fmt_ctx, &in_pkt);
        if (FAILED(hr)) {
            /** If we are at the end of the file, flush the decoder below. */
            if (hr == AVERROR_EOF)
                *finished = 1;
        }
        else if ((stream_index >= 0) && (in_pkt.stream_index != stream_index))
            continue;
        else
            av_packet_rescale_ts(&in_pkt, 
                in_fmt_ctx->streams[in_pkt.stream_index]->time_base,
                dec_ctx->time_base);

        hr = avcodec_send_packet(dec_ctx, *finished ? NULL : &in_pkt);
        if (SUCCEEDED(hr) || (hr == AVERROR(EAGAIN))) {
            while (true) {
                /** Initialize temporary storage for one input frame. */
                frame = av_frame_alloc();
                GOTO_IF_NULL(frame);

                hr = avcodec_receive_frame(dec_ctx, frame);
                if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
                    frames.push_back(frame);
                else if (hr == AVERROR_EOF) {
                    *finished = 1;
                    break;
                }
                else if (hr == AVERROR(EAGAIN)) // need more packets
                    break;
                else
                    GOTO_IF_FAILED(hr);
            }
        }
        else if (hr == AVERROR_EOF)
            *finished = 1;
        else
            GOTO_IF_FAILED(hr);

        if (*finished || !frames.empty())
            break;
    }

    hr = 0;
RESOURCE_FREE:
    // free resources
    return hr;
}

load_encode_and_write 函数

无止境的 wrapper,从 fifo 队列中读取目标大小的数据然后进行编码并写到文件中。

int load_encode_and_write(
    AVAudioFifo* fifo,
    AVFormatContext* out_fmt_ctx,
    AVCodecContext* enc_ctx,
    audio_base_info* out_aud_info,
    bool interleaved,
    bool init_pts = true )
{
    int hr = -1;
    /** Temporary storage of the output samples of the frame written to the file. */
    AVFrame *output_frame = NULL;

    hr = read_samples_from_fifo(fifo, out_aud_info, &output_frame);
    GOTO_IF_FAILED(hr);

    /** Encode one frame worth of audio samples. */
    int data_written = 0;
    hr = encode_av_frame(output_frame, out_fmt_ctx, enc_ctx, 
        &data_written, interleaved, init_pts);
    GOTO_IF_FAILED(hr);

    hr = 0;
RESOURCE_FREE:
    if (NULL != output_frame)
        av_frame_free(&output_frame);
    return hr;
}
read_samples_from_fifo 函数

顾名思义,不解释。

int read_samples_from_fifo(AVAudioFifo* fifo, audio_base_info* out_aud_info, AVFrame** output_frame)
{
    RETURN_IF_NULL(fifo);
    RETURN_IF_NULL(out_aud_info);
    RETURN_IF_NULL(output_frame);
    int hr = -1;

    /**
     * Use the maximum number of possible samples per frame.
     * If there is less than the maximum possible frame size in the FIFO
     * buffer use this number. Otherwise, use the maximum possible frame size
     */
    int fifo_size = av_audio_fifo_size(fifo);
    const int frame_size = FFMIN(fifo_size, out_aud_info->frame_size);

    /** Initialize temporary storage for one output frame. */
    hr = init_audio_frame(output_frame, out_aud_info);
    RETURN_IF_FAILED(hr);

    /**
     * Read as many samples from the FIFO buffer as required to fill the frame.
     * The samples are stored in the frame temporarily.
     */
    int samples_read = av_audio_fifo_read(fifo, (void**)((*output_frame)->data), frame_size);
    RETURN_IF_FALSE(samples_read == frame_size);

    return 0;
}
encode_av_frame 函数

亲爱的编码函数。

int encode_av_frame(
    AVFrame *frame,
    AVFormatContext *out_fmt_ctx,
    AVCodecContext *enc_ctx,
    int* data_written,
    bool interleaved,
    bool init_pts)
{
    // frame can be NULL which means to flush
    RETURN_IF_NULL(out_fmt_ctx);
    RETURN_IF_NULL(enc_ctx);
    RETURN_IF_NULL(data_written);
    *data_written = 0;
    int hr = -1;

    if (NULL != frame && init_pts) {
        if (enc_ctx->codec_type == AVMEDIA_TYPE_AUDIO) {
            /** Set a timestamp based on the sample rate for the container. */
            frame->pts = g_ttl_a_samples;
            g_ttl_a_samples += frame->nb_samples;
        }
    }

    int stream_idx = 0;
    for (unsigned int i = 0; i < out_fmt_ctx->nb_streams; ++i) {
        if (out_fmt_ctx->streams[i]->codecpar->codec_type == enc_ctx->codec_type) {
            stream_idx = i;
            break;
        }
    }

    std::vector<AVPacket*> packets;
    AVPacket* output_packet = NULL;

    hr = avcodec_send_frame(enc_ctx, frame);
    if (SUCCEEDED(hr) || (hr == AVERROR(EAGAIN))) {
        while (true) {
            /** Packet used for temporary storage. */
            output_packet = new AVPacket();
            init_packet(output_packet);

            hr = avcodec_receive_packet(enc_ctx, output_packet);
            if (SUCCEEDED(hr)) {
                output_packet->stream_index = stream_idx;
                packets.push_back(output_packet);
            }
            else if (hr == AVERROR(EAGAIN)) // need more input frames
                break;
            else if (hr == AVERROR_EOF)
                break;
            else
                GOTO_IF_FAILED(hr);
        }
    }
    else if (hr != AVERROR_EOF)
        GOTO_IF_FAILED(hr);

    for (size_t i = 0; i < packets.size(); ++i) {
        // set pts based on stream time base.
        AVRational stream_tb = get_stream_time_base(out_fmt_ctx, enc_ctx->codec_type);
        AVPacket* packet = packets[i];
        switch (enc_ctx->codec_type) {
        case AVMEDIA_TYPE_AUDIO:
            av_packet_rescale_ts(packet, enc_ctx->time_base, stream_tb);
            break;
        }

        /** Write one frame from the temporary packet to the output file. */
        if (interleaved)
            hr = av_interleaved_write_frame(out_fmt_ctx, packet);
        else
            hr = av_write_frame(out_fmt_ctx, packet);
        GOTO_IF_FAILED(hr);

        *data_written = 1;
    }

    hr = 0;
RESOURCE_FREE:
    // free resources
    return hr;
}

flush_encoder 函数

终于结束了,最后是擦屁股。

int flush_encoder(
    AVFormatContext* format_ctx,
    AVCodecContext* codec_ctx,
    bool interleaved,
    bool init_pts)
{
    if (!(codec_ctx->codec->capabilities & AV_CODEC_CAP_DELAY))
        return 0;

    int data_written = 0;
    /** Flush the encoder as it may have delayed frames. */
    do {
        int hr = encode_av_frame(NULL, format_ctx, codec_ctx, &data_written, interleaved, init_pts);
        RETURN_IF_FAILED(hr);
    } while (data_written);

    return 0;
}

其他框架下的采集

请参考对应的文章。

  • Waveform API
  • DirectShow
  • Media Foundation

Blueware
EOF

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