一文搞懂如何实现Java,Spring动态启停定时任务

为什么需要定时任务

定时任务的应用场景十分广泛,如定时清理文件、定时生成报表、定时数据同步备份等。

Java定时任务的原理

jdk自带的库中,有两种技术可以实现定时任务,一种是Timer,另一种是ScheduledThreadPoolExecutor

Timer+TimerTask

Timer是一个线程,控制执行TimerTask所需要执行的内容

public class Timer {
    /**
     * The timer task queue.  This data structure is shared with the timer
     * thread.  The timer produces tasks, via its various schedule calls,
     * and the timer thread consumes, executing timer tasks as appropriate,
     * and removing them from the queue when they're obsolete.
     */
    private final TaskQueue queue = new TaskQueue();
    /**
     * The timer thread.
     */
    private final TimerThread thread = new TimerThread(queue);
    。。。。。。
}

其中,需要注意,Timer类有几个方法创建不同的线程执行:

延时执行

//其中的delay是延时时间,表示多少毫秒后执行一次task
public void schedule(TimerTask task, long delay) {
    if (delay < 0)
        throw new IllegalArgumentException("Negative delay.");
    sched(task, System.currentTimeMillis()+delay, 0);
}

指定时间点执行

//到达指定时间time的时候执行一次task
public void schedule(TimerTask task, Date time) {
    sched(task, time.getTime(), 0);
}

延时周期执行

//经过delay毫秒后按每period毫秒执行一次的周期执行task
public void schedule(TimerTask task, long delay, long period) {
    if (delay < 0)
        throw new IllegalArgumentException("Negative delay.");
    if (period <= 0)
        throw new IllegalArgumentException("Non-positive period.");
    sched(task, System.currentTimeMillis()+delay, -period);
}

指定时间点后周期执行

//到达指定时间firstTime之后按照每period毫秒执行一次的周期执行task
public void schedule(TimerTask task, Date firstTime, long period) {
    if (period <= 0)
        throw new IllegalArgumentException("Non-positive period.");
    sched(task, firstTime.getTime(), -period);
}

TimerTask是一个实现了Runable接口的类,所以能够放到线程去执行:

public abstract class TimerTask implements Runnable {
    /**
     * This object is used to control access to the TimerTask internals.
     */
    final Object lock = new Object();
    
    。。。。。。
}

示例:

public class JavaTimerJob {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Timer timer = new Timer();
        Task task = new Task();
        //当前时间开始,每1秒执行一次
        timer.schedule(task, new Date(),1000);
    }
 }
class Task extends TimerTask {
    @Override
    public void run() {
        System.out.println(new Date()+":  This is my job...");
    }
}

执行结果:

Tue May 30 13:45:47 CST 2022:  This is my job...
Tue May 30 13:45:48 CST 2022:  This is my job...
Tue May 30 13:45:49 CST 2022:  This is my job...
Tue May 30 13:45:50 CST 2022:  This is my job...
。。。。

弊端:Timer是单线程的,一旦定时任务中某一过程时刻抛出异常,将会导致整体线程停止,定时任务停止。

ScheduledThreadPoolExecutor

继承了ThreadPoolExecutor,,是一个基于线程池的调度器 通过实现ScheduledExecutorService接口方法去实现任务调度,主要方法如下:

延时执行

//command是待执行的线程,delay表示延时时长,unit代表时间单位
public ScheduledFuture schedule(Runnable command,
                                   long delay,
                                   TimeUnit unit) {
    if (command == null || unit == null)
        throw new NullPointerException();
    RunnableScheduledFuture t = decorateTask(command,
        new ScheduledFutureTask(command, null,
                                      triggerTime(delay, unit)));
    delayedExecute(t);
    return t;
}

延时周期执行

//command是待执行的线程,initialDelay表示延时时长,period代表执行间隔时长,unit代表时间单位
public ScheduledFuture scheduleAtFixedRate(Runnable command,
                                              long initialDelay,
                                              long period,
                                              TimeUnit unit) {
    if (command == null || unit == null)
        throw new NullPointerException();
    if (period <= 0)
        throw new IllegalArgumentException();
    ScheduledFutureTask sft =
        new ScheduledFutureTask(command,
                                      null,
                                      triggerTime(initialDelay, unit),
                                      unit.toNanos(period));
    RunnableScheduledFuture t = decorateTask(command, sft);
    sft.outerTask = t;
    delayedExecute(t);
    return t;
}

每段延时间隔执行

//command是待执行的线程,initialDelay表示延时时长,delay代表每次执行线程前的延时时长,unit代表时间单位
public ScheduledFuture scheduleWithFixedDelay(Runnable command,
                                                 long initialDelay,
                                                 long delay,
                                                 TimeUnit unit) {
    if (command == null || unit == null)
        throw new NullPointerException();
    if (delay <= 0)
        throw new IllegalArgumentException();
    ScheduledFutureTask sft =
        new ScheduledFutureTask(command,
                                      null,
                                      triggerTime(initialDelay, unit),
                                      unit.toNanos(-delay));
    RunnableScheduledFuture t = decorateTask(command, sft);
    sft.outerTask = t;
    delayedExecute(t);
    return t;
}

示例:

public class JavaScheduledThreadPoolExecutor {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        ScheduledExecutorService scheduledExecutorService = Executors.newScheduledThreadPool(8);
        //延时1秒后开始执行,每3秒执行一次
        scheduledExecutorService.scheduleAtFixedRate(new Runnable() {
            @Override
            public void run() {
                System.out.println(new Date()+": This is my job...");
            }
        }, 1, 3, TimeUnit.SECONDS);
    }
}

执行结果:

Tue May 30 15:05:16 CST 2022: This is my job...
Tue May 30 15:05:19 CST 2022: This is my job...
Tue May 30 15:05:22 CST 2022: This is my job...
Tue May 30 15:05:25 CST 2022: This is my job...
。。。。。

Timer VS ScheduledThreadPoolExecutor

Timer

  • 是单线程,如果开启多个线程服务,将会出现竞争,一旦出现异常,线程停止,定时任务停止;
  • 兼容性更高,jdk1.3后使用

ScheduledThreadPoolExecutor

  • 基于线程池实现多线程,且自动调整线程数,线程出错并不会影响整体定时任务执行。
  • 在jdk1.5后可使用

Spring定时任务

Spring原生定时任务主要依靠@Scheduled注解实现:

@Target({ElementType.METHOD, ElementType.ANNOTATION_TYPE})
@Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME)
@Documented
@Repeatable(Schedules.class)
public @interface Scheduled {
   String CRON_DISABLED = "-";
   String cron() default "";  //类似于corn表达式,可以指定定时任务执行的延迟及周期规则
   
   String zone() default "";  //指明解析cron表达式的时区。
   long fixedDelay() default -1;  //在最后一次调用结束和下一次调用开始之间以固定周期(以毫秒为单位)执行带注解的方法。(要等待上次任务完成后)
   String fixedDelayString() default "";  //同上面作用一样,只是String类型
   long fixedRate() default -1;  //在调用之间以固定的周期(以毫秒为单位)执行带注解的方法。(不需要等待上次任务完成)
   
   String fixedRateString() default "";  //同上面作用一样,只是String类型
   long initialDelay() default -1;  //第一次执行fixedRate()或fixedDelay()任务之前延迟的毫秒数 。
   String initialDelayString() default "";  //同上面作用一样,只是String类型
}

Spring静态定时任务示例:

@Slf4j
@Component
public class TestJob {
   //每40秒执行一次
    @Scheduled(cron = "0/40 * * * * ?")
    public void logJob(){
        if(log.isDebugEnabled()){
            log.debug("现在是:{}",LocalDateTime.now());
        }
    }
}

执行结果:

现在是:2022-05-30T16:03:40.006
现在是:2022-05-30T16:04
现在是:2022-05-30T16:04:40.003

@Scheduled定时任务原理(源码)

①项目启动扫描带有注解@Scheduled的所有方法信息由ScheduledAnnotationBeanPostProcessorpostProcessAfterInitialization方法实现功能:

public Object postProcessAfterInitialization(Object bean, String beanName) {
   
   if (bean instanceof AopInfrastructureBean || bean instanceof TaskScheduler ||
         bean instanceof ScheduledExecutorService) {
      // Ignore AOP infrastructure such as scoped proxies.
      return bean;
   }
   Class targetClass = AopProxyUtils.ultimateTargetClass(bean);
   if (!this.nonAnnotatedClasses.contains(targetClass)) {
       //获取定时任务的方法
      Map> annotatedMethods = MethodIntrospector.selectMethods(targetClass,
            (MethodIntrospector.MetadataLookup>) method -> {
               Set scheduledMethods = AnnotatedElementUtils.getMergedRepeatableAnnotations(
                     method, Scheduled.class, Schedules.class);
               return (!scheduledMethods.isEmpty() ? scheduledMethods : null);
            });
      if (annotatedMethods.isEmpty()) {
         this.nonAnnotatedClasses.add(targetClass);
         if (logger.isTraceEnabled()) {
            logger.trace("No @Scheduled annotations found on bean class: " + targetClass);
         }
      }
      else {
         // Non-empty set of methods
         annotatedMethods.forEach((method, scheduledMethods) ->
               //调用processScheduled方法将定时任务方法存放到任务队列中
               scheduledMethods.forEach(scheduled -> processScheduled(scheduled, method, bean)));
         if (logger.isTraceEnabled()) {
            logger.trace(annotatedMethods.size() + " @Scheduled methods processed on bean '" + beanName +
                  "': " + annotatedMethods);
         }
      }
   }
   return bean;
}

②调用processScheduled方法将定时任务方法存放到任务队列中

protected void processScheduled(Scheduled scheduled, Method method, Object bean) {
   try {
       //创建任务线程
      Runnable runnable = createRunnable(bean, method);
      boolean processedSchedule = false;
      String errorMessage =
            "Exactly one of the 'cron', 'fixedDelay(String)', or 'fixedRate(String)' attributes is required";
      Set tasks = new LinkedHashSet<>(4);
      //解析任务执行初始延迟
      long initialDelay = scheduled.initialDelay();
      String initialDelayString = scheduled.initialDelayString();
      if (StringUtils.hasText(initialDelayString)) {
         Assert.isTrue(initialDelay < 0, "Specify 'initialDelay' or 'initialDelayString', not both");
         if (this.embeddedValueResolver != null) {
            initialDelayString = this.embeddedValueResolver.resolveStringValue(initialDelayString);
         }
         if (StringUtils.hasLength(initialDelayString)) {
            try {
               initialDelay = parseDelayAsLong(initialDelayString);
            }
            catch (RuntimeException ex) {
               throw new IllegalArgumentException(
                     "Invalid initialDelayString value \"" + initialDelayString + "\" - cannot parse into long");
            }
         }
      }
      //解析cron表达式
      String cron = scheduled.cron();
      if (StringUtils.hasText(cron)) {
         String zone = scheduled.zone();
         if (this.embeddedValueResolver != null) {
            cron = this.embeddedValueResolver.resolveStringValue(cron);
            zone = this.embeddedValueResolver.resolveStringValue(zone);
         }
         if (StringUtils.hasLength(cron)) {
            Assert.isTrue(initialDelay == -1, "'initialDelay' not supported for cron triggers");
            processedSchedule = true;
            if (!Scheduled.CRON_DISABLED.equals(cron)) {
               TimeZone timeZone;
               if (StringUtils.hasText(zone)) {
                  timeZone = StringUtils.parseTimeZoneString(zone);
               }
               else {
                  timeZone = TimeZone.getDefault();
               }
               tasks.add(this.registrar.scheduleCronTask(new CronTask(runnable, new CronTrigger(cron, timeZone))));
            }
         }
      }
      // At this point we don't need to differentiate between initial delay set or not anymore
      if (initialDelay < 0) {
         initialDelay = 0;
      }
      //解析fixedDelay参数
      long fixedDelay = scheduled.fixedDelay();
      if (fixedDelay >= 0) {
         Assert.isTrue(!processedSchedule, errorMessage);
         processedSchedule = true;
         
         //存放任务到任务队列中
         tasks.add(this.registrar.scheduleFixedDelayTask(new FixedDelayTask(runnable, fixedDelay, initialDelay)));
      }
      
      String fixedDelayString = scheduled.fixedDelayString();
      if (StringUtils.hasText(fixedDelayString)) {
         if (this.embeddedValueResolver != null) {
            fixedDelayString = this.embeddedValueResolver.resolveStringValue(fixedDelayString);
         }
         if (StringUtils.hasLength(fixedDelayString)) {
            Assert.isTrue(!processedSchedule, errorMessage);
            processedSchedule = true;
            try {
               fixedDelay = parseDelayAsLong(fixedDelayString);
            }
            catch (RuntimeException ex) {
               throw new IllegalArgumentException(
                     "Invalid fixedDelayString value \"" + fixedDelayString + "\" - cannot parse into long");
            }
            tasks.add(this.registrar.scheduleFixedDelayTask(new FixedDelayTask(runnable, fixedDelay, initialDelay)));
         }
      }
      //解析fixedRate参数
      long fixedRate = scheduled.fixedRate();
      if (fixedRate >= 0) {
         Assert.isTrue(!processedSchedule, errorMessage);
         processedSchedule = true;
         tasks.add(this.registrar.scheduleFixedRateTask(new FixedRateTask(runnable, fixedRate, initialDelay)));
      }
      String fixedRateString = scheduled.fixedRateString();
      if (StringUtils.hasText(fixedRateString)) {
         if (this.embeddedValueResolver != null) {
            fixedRateString = this.embeddedValueResolver.resolveStringValue(fixedRateString);
         }
         if (StringUtils.hasLength(fixedRateString)) {
            Assert.isTrue(!processedSchedule, errorMessage);
            processedSchedule = true;
            try {
               fixedRate = parseDelayAsLong(fixedRateString);
            }
            catch (RuntimeException ex) {
               throw new IllegalArgumentException(
                     "Invalid fixedRateString value \"" + fixedRateString + "\" - cannot parse into long");
            }
            tasks.add(this.registrar.scheduleFixedRateTask(new FixedRateTask(runnable, fixedRate, initialDelay)));
         }
      }
      // 断言检查
      Assert.isTrue(processedSchedule, errorMessage);
      //并发控制将任务队列存入注册任务列表
      synchronized (this.scheduledTasks) {
         Set regTasks = this.scheduledTasks.computeIfAbsent(bean, key -> new LinkedHashSet<>(4));
         regTasks.addAll(tasks);
      }
   }
   catch (IllegalArgumentException ex) {
      throw new IllegalStateException(
            "Encountered invalid @Scheduled method '" + method.getName() + "': " + ex.getMessage());
   }
}

③将任务解析并添加到任务队列后,交由ScheduledTaskRegistrar类的scheduleTasks方法添加(注册)定时任务到环境中:

protected void scheduleTasks() {
   if (this.taskScheduler == null) {
       //获取ScheduledExecutorService对象,实际上都是使用ScheduledThreadPoolExecutor执行定时任务调度
      this.localExecutor = Executors.newSingleThreadScheduledExecutor();
      this.taskScheduler = new ConcurrentTaskScheduler(this.localExecutor);
   }
   if (this.triggerTasks != null) {
      for (TriggerTask task : this.triggerTasks) {
         addScheduledTask(scheduleTriggerTask(task));
      }
   }
   if (this.cronTasks != null) {
      for (CronTask task : this.cronTasks) {
         addScheduledTask(scheduleCronTask(task));
      }
   }
   if (this.fixedRateTasks != null) {
      for (IntervalTask task : this.fixedRateTasks) {
         addScheduledTask(scheduleFixedRateTask(task));
      }
   }
   if (this.fixedDelayTasks != null) {
      for (IntervalTask task : this.fixedDelayTasks) {
         addScheduledTask(scheduleFixedDelayTask(task));
      }
   }
}
private void addScheduledTask(@Nullable ScheduledTask task) {
   if (task != null) {
      this.scheduledTasks.add(task);
   }
}

由上述源码可以看出,Spring原生定时任务的大概步骤如下:

1.扫描带@Scheduled注解的类和方法(ScheduledAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.postProcessAfterInitialization(........))

2.将定时任务解析完成后加入任务队列(ScheduledAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.processScheduled(........))

3.将定时任务注册到当前运行环境,等待执行(ScheduledTaskRegistrar.scheduleTasks(.......)) 且@Scheduled的底层调度实现是ScheduledThreadPoolExecutor

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