latex常用符号

文章目录

    • 0.常用公式
    • 1.希腊字母
    • 2.数学相关
    • 3.分割符号
    • 4.可变公式
    • 5.数学函数
    • 6.运算符号
    • 7.其它符号
    • 8.箭头合集
    • 9.帽子标记
    • 10.数学样式
    • 11.大小颜色
    • 13.多行公式
    • 14.间距微调

显示latex格式的公式需要加美元号 $,例如 $\beta$显示的结果为 β \beta β,如果单独一行的公式可用双美元符号,例如 $$a+b=c$$会单独成行
a + b = c a+b=c a+b=c

0.常用公式

x = − b ∓ b 2 − 4 a c 2 a x=\frac{-b\mp\sqrt{b^2-4ac}}{2a} x=2abb24ac x=\frac{-b\mp\sqrt{b^2-4ac}}{2a}
x = − b ± b 2 − 4 a c 2 a x=\dfrac{-b\pm\sqrt{b^2-4ac}}{2a} x=2ab±b24ac x=\dfrac{-b\pm\sqrt{b^2-4ac}}{2a}
n ! = 1 × 2 × 3 ⋯ × n n! = 1\times2\times3\cdots\times n n!=1×2×3×n n! = 1\times2\times3\cdots\times n
∮ f ( s ) d s \oint f(s)\mathrm{d}s f(s)ds \oint f(s)\mathrm{d}r
∮ f ( s ) d s \displaystyle\oint f(s)\mathrm{d}s f(s)ds \displaystyle\oint f(s)\mathrm{d}s
∫ − 1 + ∞ f ( x ) d x \displaystyle\int_{-1}^{+\infty} f(x)\mathrm{d}x 1+f(x)dx \displaystyle\int_{-1}^{+\infty} f(x)\mathrm{d}x
∬ f ( x ) d x \displaystyle\iint f(\bm x)\mathrm{d}\bm x f(x)dx \displaystyle\iint f(\bm x)\mathrm{d}\bm x
∥ ∑ i = 1 p + 1 ∥ \left\|\sum_{i=1}^{p+1} \right\| i=1p+1 \left\|\sum_{i=1}^{p+1}\right\|
∥ ∑ i = 1 p + 1 ∥ \left\|\displaystyle\sum_{i=1}^{p+1} \right\| i=1p+1 \left\|\displaystyle\sum_{i=1}^{p+1} \right\|
∥ ∑ i = 1 p + 1 ∥ \Big\Vert\displaystyle\sum_{i=1}^{p+1}\bigg\Vert i=1p+1 \Big\Vert\displaystyle\sum_{i=1}^{p+1}\bigg\Vert
∇ ⋅ ∇ u = Δ u \nabla\cdot\nabla u = \Delta u u=Δu \nabla\cdot\nabla u = \Delta u
( a + b a + b + c ) {a+b \choose a+b+c} (a+b+ca+b) {a+b \choose a+b+c}
( a + b + c a + b ) \left({}_{a+b+c}^{a+b}\right) (a+b+ca+b) \left({}_{a+b+c}^{a+b}\right)
a + b a + b + c {a+b \atop a+b+c} a+b+ca+b {a+b \atop a+b+c}
C a + b + c a + b C_{a+b+c}^{a+b} Ca+b+ca+b C_{a+b+c}^{a+b}
min ⁡ x ∈ R f ( x ) \min\limits^{x\in\mathcal{R}}f(x) minxRf(x) \min\limits^{x\in\mathcal{R}}f(x)
max ⁡ x ∈ R f ( x ) \max\limits_{x\in\mathcal{R}}f(x) xRmaxf(x) \max\limits_{x\in\mathcal{R}}f(x)

d u d t = ∂ u ∂ x ∂ x ∂ t + ∂ u ∂ y ∂ y ∂ t \dfrac{\mathrm{d}u}{\mathrm{d}t}=\dfrac{\partial u}{\partial x}\dfrac{\partial x}{\partial t} + \dfrac{\partial u}{\partial y}\dfrac{\partial y}{\partial t} dtdu=xutx+yuty

\dfrac{\mathrm{d}u}{\mathrm{d}t}
=
\dfrac{\partial u}{\partial x}\dfrac{\partial x}{\partial t}
+
\dfrac{\partial u}{\partial y}\dfrac{\partial y}{\partial t}

1.希腊字母

α \alpha α \alpha θ \theta θ \theta o o o o τ \tau τ \tau
β \beta β \beta ϑ \vartheta ϑ \vartheta π \pi π \pi υ \upsilon υ \upsilon
γ \gamma γ \gamma ι \iota ι \iota ϖ \varpi ϖ \varpi ϕ \phi ϕ \phi
δ \delta δ \delta κ \kappa κ \kappa ρ \rho ρ \rho φ \varphi φ \varphi
ϵ \epsilon ϵ \epsilon λ \lambda λ \lambda ϱ \varrho ϱ \varrho χ \chi χ \chi
ε \varepsilon ε \varepsilon μ \mu μ \mu σ \sigma σ \sigma ψ \psi ψ \psi
ζ \zeta ζ \zeta ν \nu ν \nu ς \varsigma ς \varsigma ω \omega ω \omega
η \eta η \eta ζ \zeta ζ \zeta
Γ \Gamma Γ \Gamma Λ \Lambda Λ \Lambda Σ \Sigma Σ \Sigma Ψ \Psi Ψ \Psi
Δ \Delta Δ \Delta Ξ \Xi Ξ \Xi Υ \Upsilon Υ \Upsilon Ω \Omega Ω \Omega
Θ \Theta Θ \Theta Π \Pi Π \Pi Φ \Phi Φ \Phi
ℵ \aleph \aleph ℶ \beth \beth ℸ \daleth \daleth ℷ \gimel \gimel

2.数学相关

a b c x y z \dfrac{abc}{xyz} xyzabc \dfrac{abc}{xyz} a b c x y z \frac{abc}{xyz} xyzabc \frac{abc}{xyz} a b c ‾ \overline{abc} abc \overline{abc}
a b c \sqrt{abc} abc \sqrt{abc} a b c n \sqrt[n]{abc} nabc \sqrt[n]{abc} a b c ‾ \underline{abc} abc \underline{abc}
a b c ^ \widehat{abc} abc \widehat{abc} a b c ~ \widetilde{abc} abc \widetilde{abc} a b c → \overrightarrow{abc} abc \overrightarrow{abc}
a b c ← \overleftarrow{abc} abc \overleftarrow{abc} a b c ⏞ \overbrace{abc} abc \overbrace{abc} a b c ⏟ \underbrace{abc} abc \underbrace{abc}
a b ⌢ \overset{\frown} {ab} ab \overset{\frown}{ab} A B ⏠ \overgroup{AB} AB \overparen{ab}

注:头顶的弧盖\overparen{ab}用于 LaTeX \LaTeX LATEX, A B ⏠ \overgroup{AB} AB 用于 KaTeX \KaTeX KATEX

3.分割符号

∣ \vert \vert ⟨ \langle \langle ⌊ \lfloor \lfoolr ⌈ \lceil \lceil
∥ \Vert \Vert ⟩ \rangle \rangle ⌋ \rfloor \rfloor ⌉ \rceil \rceil
⇑ \Uparrow \Uparrow ↑ \uparrow \uparrow ⇓ \Downarrow \Downarrow ↓ \downarrow \downarrow
└ \llcorner \llcorner ┘ \lrcorner \lrcorner ┌ \ulcorner \ulcorner ┐ \urcorner \urcorner
/ / / / \ \backslash \ \backslash

4.可变公式

∑ \sum \sum ∏ \prod \prod ∐ \coprod \coprod
∫ \int \int ∮ \oint \ont ∬ \iint \iint
⨄ \biguplus \biguplus ⋂ \bigcap \bigcap ⋃ \bigcup \bigcup
⨁ \bigoplus \bigoplus ⨂ \bigotimes \bigotimes ⨀ \bigodot \bigodot
⋁ \bigvee \bigvee ⋀ \bigwedge \bigwedge ⨆ \bigsqcup \bigsqcup

5.数学函数

只需要在常用数学函数前加上斜杠\即可
$\sin, \cos, \tan, \exp, \min, \max, \log, \ln, \lim, \cdots$
sin ⁡ , cos ⁡ , tan ⁡ , exp ⁡ , min ⁡ , max ⁡ , log ⁡ , ln ⁡ , lim ⁡ , ⋯ \sin, \cos, \tan, \exp, \min, \max, \log, \ln, \lim, \cdots sin,cos,tan,exp,min,max,log,ln,lim,

6.运算符号

+ + + + − - - × \times × \times ÷ \div ÷ \div
∗ \ast \ast ⋆ \star \star ⋅ \cdot \cdot ∘ \circ \circ
± \pm ± \pm ∓ \mp \mp ⊕ \oplus \oplus ⊗ \otimes \otimes
⋇ \divideontimes \divideontimes ⋅ \centerdot \centerdot ⊙ \odot \odot ⊚ \circledcirc \circledcirc
∩ \cap \cap ∪ \cup \cup ∨ \vee \vee ∧ \wedge \wedge
⊥ \bot \bot ⊥ \perp \perp ∖ \setminus \setminus \ \backslash \ \backslash
□ \Box \Box □ \square \square ≀ \wr \wr ⊞ \boxplus \boxplus
△ \triangle \triangle ▽ \bigtriangledown \bigtriangledown Δ \Delta Δ \Delta ∇ \nabla \nabla
≡ \equiv \equiv ≠ \neq = \neq ∼ \sim \sim ≈ \approx \approx
≜ \triangleq \triangleq ∝ \varpropto \varpropto ≪ \ll \ll ⋘ \lll \lll
≤ \leq \leq ≥ \geq \geq ⩽ \leqslant \leqslant ⩾ \geqslant \geqslant
∈ \in \in ∉ \notin / \notin ≺ \prec \prec ≻ \succ \succ
⊂ \subset \subset ⊆ \subseteq \subseteq ⊃ \supset \supset ⊇ \supseteq \supseteq
⫆ \supseteqq \nsubseteq ⫅ \subseteqq \nsubseteqq ⊈ \nsubseteq \nsubseteq ⊈ \nsubseteqq \nsubseteqq
⊊ \subsetneq \nsubseteq ⫋ \subsetneqq \nsubsetneqq ⊋ \supsetneq \nsupseteq ⫌ \supsetneqq \nsupsetneqq
∁ \complement \complement

7.其它符号

∵ \because \because ∴ \therefore \therefore / / // // // ⊥ \perp \perp
△ \triangle \triangle □ \square \square ▱ \text{▱} \text{▱} = / / {}_{=}^{//} =// {}_{=}^{//}
∞ \infty \infty ∠ \angle \angle ∡ \measuredangle \measuredangle ∢ \sphericalangle \sphericalangle
∀ \forall \foall ∃ \exist \exist ∅ \varnothing \varnothing ∅ \emptyset \emptyset
∂ \partial \partial ′ \prime \prime ℏ \hbar \hbar √ \surd \surd
⋯ \cdots \cdots ⋮ \vdots \vdots … \ldots \ldots ⋱ \ddots \ddots
ℑ \Im \Im ℜ \Re \Re ◊ \lozenge \lozenge ℧ \mho \mho
♠ \spadesuit \spadesuit ♡ \heartsuit \heartsuit ♣ \clubsuit \clubsuit ♢ \diamondsuit \diamondsuit
© \copyright c \copyright Ⓢ \circledS \circledS ® \circledR ® \circledR £ \pounds £ \pounds
$ \$ % \% % \% # \# # \# ~ \~{}
ı \imath ı \imath ȷ \jmath ȷ \jmath ℓ \ell \ell

注1:平行四边形符号并不是内置的latex符号而是特殊字符
注2: / / // // = / / {}_{=}^{//} =//是组合生成,并非内置

8.箭头合集

→ \rightarrow \rightarrow ⟶ \longrightarrow \longrightarrow ⇒ \Rightarrow \Rightarrow
⟹ \Longrightarrow \Longrightarrow ← \leftarrow \leftarrow ⟵ \longleftarrow \longleftarrow
⇐ \Leftarrow \Leftarrow ⟸ \Longleftarrow \Longleftarrow ↗ \nearrow \nearrow
↘ \searrow \searrow ↙ \swarrow \swarrow ↖ \nwarrow \nwarrow
↦ \mapsto \mapsto ⟼ \longmapsto \longmapsto ⇝ \rightsquigarrow \rightsquigarrow
⇉ \rightrightarrows \rightrightarrows ↔ \leftrightarrow \leftrightarrow ⟷ \longleftrightarrow \longleftrightarrow
⇔ \Leftrightarrow \Leftrightarrow ⟺ \Longleftrightarrow \Longleftrightarrow ⇌ \rightleftharpoons \rightleftharpoons
⇆ \leftrightarrows \leftrightarrows ⇋ \leftrightharpoons \leftrightharpoons ⇄ \rightleftarrows \rightleftarrows
↺ \circlearrowleft \circlearrowleft ↻ \circlearrowright \circlearrowright ⇍ \nLeftarrow \nLeftarrow
⇏ \nRightarrow \nRightarrow ⇎ \nLeftrightarrow \nLeftrightarrow ↭ \leftrightsquigarrow \leftrightsquigarrow
⇢ \dashrightarrow \dashrightarrow ⇠ \dashleftarrow \dashleftarrow

9.帽子标记

a ˉ \bar{a} aˉ \bar{a} a ˊ \acute{a} aˊ \acute{a} a ˇ \check{a} aˇ \check{a} a ˋ \grave{a} aˋ \grave{a}
a ˙ \dot{a} a˙ \dot{a} a ^ \hat{a} a^ \hat{a} a ˘ \breve{a} a˘ \breve{a} a ⃗ \vec{a} a \vec{a}
a ¨ \ddot{a} a¨ \ddot{a} a ~ \tilde{a} a~ \tilde{a}

10.数学样式

\mathcal{A}
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z \mathcal{ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ} ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

\mathbb{A}
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z \mathbb{ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ} ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

\mathfrak{A}
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z \mathfrak{ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ} ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

\mathsf{A}
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z \mathsf{ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ} ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

\mathscr{A}
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z \mathscr{ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ} ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

\mathrm{A}
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z \mathrm{ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ} ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

\mathit{A}
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z \mathit{ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ} ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

\mathnormal{A}
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z \mathnormal{ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ} ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

\mathbf{A}
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z \mathbf{ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ} ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

\textbf{A} 文本样式粗体
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ \textbf{ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ} ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

\text{A} 文本样式
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ \text{ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ} ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

\bm{A}
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z \bm{ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ} ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

\boldsymbol{A}
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z \boldsymbol{ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ} ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

11.大小颜色

123 456 789 {\color{red}123} {\color{blue}456} {\color{green}789} 123456789 {\color{red}123} {\color{blue}456} {\color{green}789}
a b c \tiny{abc} abc \tiny{abc}
a b c \scriptsize{abc} abc \scriptsize{abc}
a b c \footnotesize{abc} abc \footnotesize{abc}
a b c \small{abc} abc \small{abc}
a b c \normalsize{abc} abc \normalsize{abc}
a b c \large{abc} abc \large{abc}
a b c \Large{abc} abc \Large{abc}
a b c \LARGE{abc} abc \LARGE{abc}
a b c \huge{abc} abc \huge{abc}
a b c \Huge{abc} abc \Huge{abc}
[ ( ( [ ( \left[ \Bigg( \bigg( \Big[ \big( \right. [(([( \left[ \Bigg( \bigg( \Big[ \big( \right.
[ { } } ] \left[ \bigg\{ \Big\}\big\} \right] [{}}] \left[ \bigg\{ \Big\}\big\} \right]

注:\left\right成对出现,缺省可用.补充,它会自动设置大小

13.多行公式

多行公式常用的两环境有casesaligned

{ x + y = 1 x − y = 1 , ∫ − ∞ + ∞ f ( x ) d x ∑ k = 0 n k \begin{cases} x+y=1\\ x-y=1 \end{cases}, \qquad % %后面是接注释,\qquaa表示空格 \begin{aligned} &\int_{-\infty}^{+\infty}f(x)\mathrm{d}x\\[.8em] &\sum_{k=0}^n k \end{aligned} {x+y=1xy=1,+f(x)dxk=0nk

\begin{cases}
x+y=1\\
x-y=1
\end{cases},
\qquad % %后面是接注释,\qquaa表示空格
\begin{aligned}
&\int_{-\infty}^{+\infty}f(x)\mathrm{d}x\\[.5em]
&\sum_{k=0}^n k
\end{aligned}
% &字符号表示对齐,\\另起一行, \\[.5em]里面的.5表示行高

矩阵格式

( 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ) , ∣ a b c d ∣ , a b c d e f \left(\begin{matrix} 1&2&3\\ 4&5&6\\ 7&8&9 \end{matrix}\right) ,\qquad \left| \begin{matrix} a&b\\ c&d \end{matrix}\right| ,\qquad \begin{matrix} a&b\\ c&d \\ e&f \end{matrix} 147258369,acbd,acebdf

\left(\begin{matrix}
1&2&3\\
4&5&6\\
7&8&9
\end{matrix}\right)
,\qquad
\left|
\begin{matrix}
a&b\\
c&d
\end{matrix}\right|
,\qquad
\begin{matrix}
a&b\\
c&d \\
e&f
\end{matrix}

14.间距微调

间距紧凑:\!

x + y x+y x+y x+y
x  ⁣ + y x\!+y x+y x\!+y
x  ⁣ ⁣ + y x\!\!+y x+y x\!\!+y

间距拉开:\, \; \quad \qquad

x + y x+y x+y x+y
x +   y x+\,y x+y x+\,y
x +    y x+\;y x+y x+\;y
x + y x+\quad y x+y x+\quad y
x + y x+\qquad y x+y x+\qquad y

本文参考https://katex.org/docs/supported.html

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