常用python脚本_8 个 Python 实用脚本,赶紧收藏备用!

脚本写的好,下班下得早!程序员的日常工作除了编写程序代码,还不可避免地需要处理相关的测试和验证工作。

例如,访问某个网站一直不通,需要确定此地址是否可访问,服务器返回什么,进而确定问题在于什么。完成这个任务,如果一味希望采用编译型语言来编写这样的代码,实践中的时间和精力是不够的,这个时候就需要发挥脚本的神奇作用!

好不夸张的说,能否写出高效实用的脚本代码,直接影响着一个程序员的幸福生活[下班时间]。下面整理 8 个实用的 Python 脚本,需要的时候改改直接用,建议收藏!

1.解决 linux 下 unzip 乱码的问题。

import os

import sys

import zipfile

import argparse

s = '\x1b[%d;%dm%s\x1b[0m'

def unzip(path):

file = zipfile.ZipFile(path,"r")

if args.secret:

file.setpassword(args.secret)

for name in file.namelist():

try:

utf8name=name.decode('gbk')

pathname = os.path.dirname(utf8name)

except:

utf8name=name

pathname = os.path.dirname(utf8name)

#print s % (1, 92, ' >> extracting:'), utf8name

#pathname = os.path.dirname(utf8name)

if not os.path.exists(pathname) and pathname != "":

os.makedirs(pathname)

data = file.read(name)

if not os.path.exists(utf8name):

try:

fo = open(utf8name, "w")

fo.write(data)

fo.close

except:

pass

file.close()

def main(argv):

######################################################

# for argparse

p = argparse.ArgumentParser(description='解决unzip乱码')

p.add_argument('xxx', type=str, nargs='*', \

help='命令对象.')

p.add_argument('-s', '--secret', action='store', \

default=None, help='密码')

global args

args = p.parse_args(argv[1:])

xxx = args.xxx

for path in xxx:

if path.endswith('.zip'):

if os.path.exists(path):

print s % (1, 97, ' ++ unzip:'), path

unzip(path)

else:

print s % (1, 91, ' !! file doesn\'t exist.'), path

else:

print s % (1, 91, ' !! file isn\'t a zip file.'), path

if __name__ == '__main__':

argv = sys.argv

main(argv)

2.统计当前根目录代码行数。

# coding=utf-8

import os

import time

# 设定根目录

basedir = './'

filelists = []

# 指定想要统计的文件类型

whitelist = ['cpp', 'h']

#遍历文件, 递归遍历文件夹中的所有

def getFile(basedir):

global filelists

for parent,dirnames,filenames in os.walk(basedir):

for filename in filenames:

ext = filename.split('.')[-1]

#只统计指定的文件类型,略过一些log和cache文件

if ext in whitelist:

filelists.append(os.path.join(parent,filename))

#统计一个的行数

def countLine(fname):

count = 0

# 把文件做二进制看待,read.

for file_line in open(fname, 'rb').readlines():

if file_line != '' and file_line != '\n': #过滤掉空行

count += 1

print (fname + '----' , count)

return count

if __name__ == '__main__' :

startTime = time.clock()

getFile(basedir)

totalline = 0

for filelist in filelists:

totalline = totalline + countLine(filelist)

print ('total lines:',totalline)

print ('Done! Cost Time: %0.2f second' % (time.clock() - startTime))

3.扫描当前目录和所有子目录并显示大小。

import os

import sys

try:

directory = sys.argv[1]

except IndexError:

sys.exit("Must provide an argument.")

dir_size = 0

fsizedicr = {'Bytes': 1,

'Kilobytes': float(1) / 1024,

'Megabytes': float(1) / (1024 * 1024),

'Gigabytes': float(1) / (1024 * 1024 * 1024)}

for (path, dirs, files) in os.walk(directory):

for file in files:

filename = os.path.join(path, file)

dir_size += os.path.getsize(filename)

fsizeList = [str(round(fsizedicr[key] * dir_size, 2)) + " " + key for key in fsizedicr]

if dir_size == 0: print ("File Empty")

else:

for units in sorted(fsizeList)[::-1]:

print ("Folder Size: " + units)

4.将源目录240天以上的所有文件移动到目标目录。

import shutil

import sys

import time

import os

import argparse

usage = 'python move_files_over_x_days.py -src [SRC] -dst [DST] -days [DAYS]'

description = 'Move files from src to dst if they are older than a certain number of days. Default is 240 days'

args_parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(usage=usage, description=description)

args_parser.add_argument('-src', '--src', type=str, nargs='?', default='.', help='(OPTIONAL) Directory where files will be moved from. Defaults to current directory')

args_parser.add_argument('-dst', '--dst', type=str, nargs='?', required=True, help='(REQUIRED) Directory where files will be moved to.')

args_parser.add_argument('-days', '--days', type=int, nargs='?', default=240, help='(OPTIONAL) Days value specifies the minimum age of files to be moved. Default is 240.')

args = args_parser.parse_args()

if args.days < 0:

args.days = 0

src = args.src # 设置源目录

dst = args.dst # 设置目标目录

days = args.days # 设置天数

now = time.time() # 获得当前时间

if not os.path.exists(dst):

os.mkdir(dst)

for f in os.listdir(src): # 遍历源目录所有文件

if os.stat(f).st_mtime < now - days * 86400: # 判断是否超过240天

if os.path.isfile(f): # 检查是否是文件

shutil.move(f, dst) # 移动文件

5.扫描脚本目录,并给出不同类型脚本的计数。

import os

import shutil

from time import strftime

logsdir="c:\logs\puttylogs"

zipdir="c:\logs\puttylogs\zipped_logs"

zip_program="zip.exe"

for files in os.listdir(logsdir):

if files.endswith(".log"):

files1=files+"."+strftime("%Y-%m-%d")+".zip"

os.chdir(logsdir)

os.system(zip_program + " " + files1 +" "+ files)

shutil.move(files1, zipdir)

os.remove(files)

6.下载Leetcode的算法题。

import sys

import re

import os

import argparse

import requests

from lxml import html as lxml_html

try:

import html

except ImportError:

import HTMLParser

html = HTMLParser.HTMLParser()

try:

import cPickle as pk

except ImportError:

import pickle as pk

class LeetcodeProblems(object):

def get_problems_info(self):

leetcode_url = 'https://leetcode.com/problemset/algorithms'

res = requests.get(leetcode_url)

if not res.ok:

print('request error')

sys.exit()

cm = res.text

cmt = cm.split('tbody>')[-2]

indexs = re.findall(r'

(\d+)', cmt)

problem_urls = ['https://leetcode.com' + url \

for url in re.findall(

r'

levels = re.findall(r"

(.+?)", cmt)

tinfos = zip(indexs, levels, problem_urls)

assert (len(indexs) == len(problem_urls) == len(levels))

infos = []

for info in tinfos:

res = requests.get(info[-1])

if not res.ok:

print('request error')

sys.exit()

tree = lxml_html.fromstring(res.text)

title = tree.xpath('//meta[@property="og:title"]/@content')[0]

description = tree.xpath('//meta[@property="description"]/@content')

if not description:

description = tree.xpath('//meta[@property="og:description"]/@content')[0]

else:

description = description[0]

description = html.unescape(description.strip())

tags = tree.xpath('//div[@id="tags"]/following::a[@class="btn btn-xs btn-primary"]/text()')

infos.append(

{

'title': title,

'level': info[1],

'index': int(info[0]),

'description': description,

'tags': tags

}

)

with open('leecode_problems.pk', 'wb') as g:

pk.dump(infos, g)

return infos

def to_text(self, pm_infos):

if self.args.index:

key = 'index'

elif self.args.title:

key = 'title'

elif self.args.tag:

key = 'tags'

elif self.args.level:

key = 'level'

else:

key = 'index'

infos = sorted(pm_infos, key=lambda i: i[key])

text_template = '## {index} - {title}\n' \

'~{level}~ {tags}\n' \

'{description}\n' + '\n' * self.args.line

text = ''

for info in infos:

if self.args.rm_blank:

info['description'] = re.sub(r'[\n\r]+', r'\n', info['description'])

text += text_template.format(**info)

with open('leecode problems.txt', 'w') as g:

g.write(text)

def run(self):

if os.path.exists('leecode_problems.pk') and not self.args.redownload:

with open('leecode_problems.pk', 'rb') as f:

pm_infos = pk.load(f)

else:

pm_infos = self.get_problems_info()

print('find %s problems.' % len(pm_infos))

self.to_text(pm_infos)

def handle_args(argv):

p = argparse.ArgumentParser(description='extract all leecode problems to location')

p.add_argument('--index', action='store_true', help='sort by index')

p.add_argument('--level', action='store_true', help='sort by level')

p.add_argument('--tag', action='store_true', help='sort by tag')

p.add_argument('--title', action='store_true', help='sort by title')

p.add_argument('--rm_blank', action='store_true', help='remove blank')

p.add_argument('--line', action='store', type=int, default=10, help='blank of two problems')

p.add_argument('-r', '--redownload', action='store_true', help='redownload data')

args = p.parse_args(argv[1:])

return args

def main(argv):

args = handle_args(argv)

x = LeetcodeProblems()

x.args = args

x.run()

if __name__ == '__main__':

argv = sys.argv

main(argv)

7.将 Markdown 转换为 HTML。

import sys

import os

from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

import markdown

class MarkdownToHtml:

headTag = '

'

def __init__(self,cssFilePath = None):

if cssFilePath != None:

self.genStyle(cssFilePath)

def genStyle(self,cssFilePath):

with open(cssFilePath,'r') as f:

cssString = f.read()

self.headTag = self.headTag[:-7] + ''.format(cssString) + self.headTag[-7:]

def markdownToHtml(self, sourceFilePath, destinationDirectory = None, outputFileName = None):

if not destinationDirectory:

# 未定义输出目录则将源文件目录(注意要转换为绝对路径)作为输出目录

destinationDirectory = os.path.dirname(os.path.abspath(sourceFilePath))

if not outputFileName:

# 未定义输出文件名则沿用输入文件名

outputFileName = os.path.splitext(os.path.basename(sourceFilePath))[0] + '.html'

if destinationDirectory[-1] != '/':

destinationDirectory += '/'

with open(sourceFilePath,'r', encoding='utf8') as f:

markdownText = f.read()

# 编译出原始 HTML 文本

rawHtml = self.headTag + markdown.markdown(markdownText,output_format='html5')

# 格式化 HTML 文本为可读性更强的格式

beautifyHtml = BeautifulSoup(rawHtml,'html5lib').prettify()

with open(destinationDirectory + outputFileName, 'w', encoding='utf8') as f:

f.write(beautifyHtml)

if __name__ == "__main__":

mth = MarkdownToHtml()

# 做一个命令行参数列表的浅拷贝,不包含脚本文件名

argv = sys.argv[1:]

# 目前列表 argv 可能包含源文件路径之外的元素(即选项信息)

# 程序最后遍历列表 argv 进行编译 markdown 时,列表中的元素必须全部是源文件路径

outputDirectory = None

if '-s' in argv:

cssArgIndex = argv.index('-s') +1

cssFilePath = argv[cssArgIndex]

# 检测样式表文件路径是否有效

if not os.path.isfile(cssFilePath):

print('Invalid Path: '+cssFilePath)

sys.exit()

mth.genStyle(cssFilePath)

# pop 顺序不能随意变化

argv.pop(cssArgIndex)

argv.pop(cssArgIndex-1)

if '-o' in argv:

dirArgIndex = argv.index('-o') +1

outputDirectory = argv[dirArgIndex]

# 检测输出目录是否有效

if not os.path.isdir(outputDirectory):

print('Invalid Directory: ' + outputDirectory)

sys.exit()

# pop 顺序不能随意变化

argv.pop(dirArgIndex)

argv.pop(dirArgIndex-1)

# 至此,列表 argv 中的元素均是源文件路径

# 遍历所有源文件路径

for filePath in argv:

# 判断文件路径是否有效

if os.path.isfile(filePath):

mth.markdownToHtml(filePath, outputDirectory)

else:

print('Invalid Path: ' + filePath)

8.文本文件编码检测与转换。

import sys

import os

import argparse

from chardet.universaldetector import UniversalDetector

parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(description = '文本文件编码检测与转换')

parser.add_argument('filePaths', nargs = '+',

help = '检测或转换的文件路径')

parser.add_argument('-e', '--encoding', nargs = '?', const = 'UTF-8',

help = '''

目标编码。支持的编码有:

ASCII, (Default) UTF-8 (with or without a BOM), UTF-16 (with a BOM),

UTF-32 (with a BOM), Big5, GB2312/GB18030, EUC-TW, HZ-GB-2312, ISO-2022-CN, EUC-JP, SHIFT_JIS, ISO-2022-JP,

ISO-2022-KR, KOI8-R, MacCyrillic, IBM855, IBM866, ISO-8859-5, windows-1251, ISO-8859-2, windows-1250, EUC-KR,

ISO-8859-5, windows-1251, ISO-8859-1, windows-1252, ISO-8859-7, windows-1253, ISO-8859-8, windows-1255, TIS-620

''')

parser.add_argument('-o', '--output',

help = '输出目录')

# 解析参数,得到一个 Namespace 对象

args = parser.parse_args()

# 输出目录不为空即视为开启转换, 若未指定转换编码,则默认为 UTF-8

if args.output != None:

if not args.encoding:

# 默认使用编码 UTF-8

args.encoding = 'UTF-8'

# 检测用户提供的输出目录是否有效

if not os.path.isdir(args.output):

print('Invalid Directory: ' + args.output)

sys.exit()

else:

if args.output[-1] != '/':

args.output += '/'

# 实例化一个通用检测器

detector = UniversalDetector()

print()

print('Encoding (Confidence)',':','File path')

for filePath in args.filePaths:

# 检测文件路径是否有效,无效则跳过

if not os.path.isfile(filePath):

print('Invalid Path: ' + filePath)

continue

# 重置检测器

detector.reset()

# 以二进制模式读取文件

for each in open(filePath, 'rb'):

# 检测器读取数据

detector.feed(each)

# 若检测完成则跳出循环

if detector.done:

break

# 关闭检测器

detector.close()

# 读取结果

charEncoding = detector.result['encoding']

confidence = detector.result['confidence']

# 打印信息

if charEncoding is None:

charEncoding = 'Unknown'

confidence = 0.99

print('{} {:>12} : {}'.format(charEncoding.rjust(8),

'('+str(confidence*100)+'%)', filePath))

if args.encoding and charEncoding != 'Unknown' and confidence > 0.6:

# 若未设置输出目录则覆盖源文件

outputPath = args.output + os.path.basename(filePath) if args.output else filePath

with open(filePath, 'r', encoding = charEncoding, errors = 'replace') as f:

temp = f.read()

with open(outputPath, 'w', encoding = args.encoding, errors = 'replace') as f:

f.write(temp)

最后两个脚本内容选至实验楼的课程《使用 Python3 编写系列实用脚本》,课程对这两个脚本有详细的实现过程讲解,感兴趣的同学可以直接前往实验楼进行学习!

你可能感兴趣的