数据结构-C语言代码 day 1-线性表的顺序存储结构

线性表基本内容:

线性表(List):由零个或多个数据元素组成的有限序列。 首先它是一个序列,也就是说元素之间是有个先来后到的,即元素之间是有顺序的。 若元素存在多个,则第一个元素无前驱,而最后一个元素无后继,其他元素都有且只有一个前驱和后继。 另外,线性表强调是有限的,事实上无论计算机发展到多强大,它所处理的元素都是有限的。

线性表的顺序存储结构:顺序表

概念:用一组地址连续的存储单元依次存储线性表的数据元素,这种存储结构的线性表称为顺序表。

特点:逻辑上相邻的数据元素,物理次序也是相邻的。

1老师的代码

​
#include 
#include 

#define LIST_MAX_LENGTH 10

/**
 * Linear list of integers. The key is data.
 */
typedef struct SequentialList {
    int actualLength;

    int data[LIST_MAX_LENGTH]; //The maximum length is fixed.
} *SequentialListPtr;

/**
 * Output the list.
 */
void outputList(SequentialListPtr paraList) {
    for(int i = 0; i < paraList->actualLength; i ++) {
        printf("%d ", paraList->data[i]);
    }// Of for i
    printf("\r\n");
}// Of outputList

/**
 * Output the memeory for the list.
 */
void outputMemory(SequentialListPtr paraListPtr) {
    printf("The address of the structure: %ld\r\n", paraListPtr);
    printf("The address of actualLength: %ld\r\n", ¶ListPtr->actualLength);
    printf("The address of data: %ld\r\n", ¶ListPtr->data);
    printf("The address of actual data: %ld\r\n", ¶ListPtr->data[0]);
    printf("The address of second data: %ld\r\n", ¶ListPtr->data[1]);
}// Of outputMemory

/**
 * Initialize a sequential list. No error checking for this function.
 * @param paraListPtr The pointer to the list. It must be a pointer to change the list.
 * @param paraValues An int array storing all elements.
 */
SequentialListPtr sequentialListInit(int paraData[], int paraLength) {
	SequentialListPtr resultPtr = (SequentialList*)malloc(sizeof(SequentialList));
	for (int i = 0; i < paraLength; i ++) {
		resultPtr->data[i] = paraData[i];
	}// Of for i
	resultPtr->actualLength = paraLength;

	return resultPtr;
}//Of sequentialListInit

/**
 * Insert an element into a sequential linear list.
 * @param paraListPtr The pointer to the list. It must be a pointer to change the list.
 * @param paraPosition The position, e.g., 0 stands for inserting at the first position.
 * @param paraValue The value to be inserted.
 */
void sequentialListInsert(SequentialListPtr paraListPtr, int paraPosition, int paraValue) {
    // Step 1. Space check.
    if (paraListPtr->actualLength >= LIST_MAX_LENGTH) {
        printf("Cannot insert element: list full.\r\n");
        return;
    }//Of if

    // Step 2. Position check.
    if (paraPosition > paraListPtr->actualLength) {
        printf("Cannot insert element: the position %d is bigger than the list length %d.\r\n", paraPosition, paraListPtr->actualLength);
        return;
    }//Of if

    // Step 3. Move the remaining part.
    for (int i = paraListPtr->actualLength; i > paraPosition; i --) {
        paraListPtr->data[i] = paraListPtr->data[i - 1];
    }//Of for i

    // Step 4. Insert.
    paraListPtr->data[paraPosition] = paraValue;

    // Update the length.
    paraListPtr->actualLength ++;
}// Of sequentialListInsert

/**
 * Test the insert function.
 */
void sequentialInsertTest() {
	int i;
	int tempArray[5] = {3, 5, 2, 7, 4};

    printf("---- sequentialInsertTest begins. ----\r\n");

	// Initialize.
    SequentialListPtr tempList = sequentialListInit(tempArray, 5);
    printf("After initialization, the list is: ");
	outputList(tempList);

	// Insert to the first.
    printf("Now insert to the first, the list is: ");
	sequentialListInsert(tempList, 0, 8);
	outputList(tempList);

	// Insert to the last.
    printf("Now insert to the last, the list is: ");
	sequentialListInsert(tempList, 6, 9);
	outputList(tempList);

	// Insert beyond the tail.
    printf("Now insert beyond the tail. \r\n");
	sequentialListInsert(tempList, 8, 9);
    printf("The list is:");
	outputList(tempList);

	// Insert to position 3.
	for (i = 0; i < 5; i ++) {
		printf("Inserting %d.\r\n", (i + 10));
		sequentialListInsert(tempList, 0, (i + 10));
		outputList(tempList);
	}//Of for i

    printf("---- sequentialInsertTest ends. ----\r\n");
}// Of sequentialInsertTest

/**
 * Delete an element from a sequential linear list.
 * @param paraListPtr The pointer to the list. It must be a pointer to change the list.
 * @param paraPosition The position, e.g., 0 stands for inserting at the first position.
 * @return The deleted value.
 */
int sequentialListDelete(SequentialListPtr paraListPtr, int paraPosition) {
    // Step 1. Position check.
    if (paraPosition < 0) {
        printf("Invalid position: %d.\r\n", paraPosition);
        return -1;
    }//Of if

    if (paraPosition >= paraListPtr->actualLength) {
        printf("Cannot delete element: the position %d is beyond the list length %d.\r\n", paraPosition, paraListPtr->actualLength);
        return -1;
    }//Of if

    // Step 2. Move the remaining part.
	int resultValue = paraListPtr->data[paraPosition];
    for (int i = paraPosition; i < paraListPtr->actualLength; i ++) {
        paraListPtr->data[i] = paraListPtr->data[i + 1];
    }//Of for i

    // Step 3. Update the length.
    paraListPtr->actualLength --;

	// Step 4. Return the value.
	return resultValue;
}// Of sequentialListDelete

/**
 * Test the delete function.
 */
void sequentialDeleteTest() {
	int tempArray[5] = {3, 5, 2, 7, 4};

    printf("---- sequentialDeleteTest begins. ----\r\n");

	// Initialize.
    SequentialListPtr tempList = sequentialListInit(tempArray, 5);
    printf("After initialization, the list is: ");
	outputList(tempList);

	// Delete the first.
    printf("Now delete the first, the list is: ");
	sequentialListDelete(tempList, 0);
	outputList(tempList);

	// Delete to the last.
    printf("Now delete the last, the list is: ");
	sequentialListDelete(tempList, 3);
	outputList(tempList);

	// Delete the second.
    printf("Now delete the second, the list is: ");
	sequentialListDelete(tempList, 1);
	outputList(tempList);

	// Delete the second.
    printf("Now delete the 5th, the list is: ");
	sequentialListDelete(tempList, 5);
	outputList(tempList);

	// Delete the second.
    printf("Now delete the (-6)th, the list is: ");
	sequentialListDelete(tempList, -6);
	outputList(tempList);

    printf("---- sequentialDeleteTest ends. ----\r\n");

	outputMemory(tempList);
}// Of sequentialDeleteTest

/**
 * Locate an element in the list.
 * @param paraListPtr The pointer to the list.
 * @param paraValue the indicated value.
 * @return The position of the value, or  -1 indicating not exists
 */
int locateElement(SequentialListPtr paraListPtr, int paraValue) {
	for (int i = 0; i < paraListPtr->actualLength; i ++) {
		if (paraListPtr->data[i] == paraValue) {
			return i;
		}// Of if
	}//Of for i

	return -1;
}// Of locateElement

/**
 * Get an element in the list.
 * @param paraListPtr The pointer to the list.
 * @param paraPosition The given position.
 * @return The position of the value, or  -1 indicating not exists
 */
int getElement(SequentialListPtr paraListPtr, int paraPosition) {
    // Step 1. Position check.
    if (paraPosition < 0) {
        printf("Invalid position: %d.\r\n", paraPosition);
        return -1;
    }//Of if

    if (paraPosition >= paraListPtr->actualLength) {
        printf("Cannot delete element: the position %d is beyond the list length %d.\r\n", paraPosition, paraListPtr->actualLength);
        return -1;
    }//Of if

	return paraListPtr->data[paraPosition];
}// Of locateElement

/**
 * Clear elements in the list.
 * @param paraListPtr The pointer to the list.
 * @return The position of the value, or  -1 indicating not exists
 */
int clearList(SequentialListPtr paraListPtr) {
	paraListPtr->actualLength = 0;
}// Of clearList

/**
 The entrance.
 */
void main() {
	sequentialInsertTest();
	sequentialDeleteTest();
}// Of main

​

2 运行结果

---- sequentialInsertTest begins. ----
After initialization, the list is: 3 5 2 7 4
Now insert to the first, the list is: 8 3 5 2 7 4
Now insert to the last, the list is: 8 3 5 2 7 4 9
Now insert beyond the tail.
Cannot insert element: the position 8 is bigger than the list length 7.
The list is:8 3 5 2 7 4 9
Inserting 10.
10 8 3 5 2 7 4 9
Inserting 11.
11 10 8 3 5 2 7 4 9
Inserting 12.
12 11 10 8 3 5 2 7 4 9
Inserting 13.
Cannot insert element: list full.
12 11 10 8 3 5 2 7 4 9
Inserting 14.
Cannot insert element: list full.
12 11 10 8 3 5 2 7 4 9
---- sequentialInsertTest ends. ----
---- sequentialDeleteTest begins. ----
After initialization, the list is: 3 5 2 7 4
Now delete the first, the list is: 5 2 7 4
Now delete the last, the list is: 5 2 7
Now delete the second, the list is: 5 7
Now delete the 5th, the list is: Cannot delete element: the position 5 is beyond the list length 2.
5 7
Now delete the (-6)th, the list is: Invalid position: -6.
5 7
---- sequentialDeleteTest ends. ----
The address of the structure: 11670592
The address of actualLength: 11670592
The address of data: 11670596
The address of actual data: 11670596
The address of second data: 11670600

 3 自己的部分代码实现

(1) locateElement()函数  查找指定元素第一次出现

int locateElement(SequentialListPtr paraListPtr, int paraValue)
 {
    int i;
    for(i=0;iactualLength;i++)
	{
	   if(paraListPtr->data[i]==paraValue)
	   {
	   	return i;
	   }
	}
	return -1; 
}// Of locateElement

(2) getElement()函数   查找指定元素

int GetElement(SequentialListPtr paraListPtr, int paraPosition)
//取值 。i:为要取的值得位置,&e:为i位置的接受变量,并且返回主函数 
{
    int i = paraPosition;
   
	if(i<0||i>=paraListPtr->actualLength)//判断i的取值是否超范围 
	{
		printf("不合法地址\n");//如果超范围,返回ERROR,并结束 
		return -1;
	}
	return paraListPtr->data[i];
}

(3) clearList()函数   清空线性表

void clearList(SequentialListPtr paraListPtr) 
{
    free(paraListPtr);//释放内存
	paraListPtr->actualLength = 0;
}// Of clearList

(4)priorElement()函数   获得指定元素的前驱

 int priorElement(SequentialList *paraList,int i)
{ 
     if(i>paraList->actualLength&&i<1)
  {
     printf("非法位置\n");
     return 0;
  }
    else
    return paraList->data[i-2];
}

以下为完整代码

#include 
#include 

#define LIST_MAX_LENGTH 10

/**
 * Linear list of integers. The key is data.
 */
typedef struct SequentialList {
    int actualLength;

    int data[LIST_MAX_LENGTH]; //The maximum length is fixed.
} *SequentialListPtr;

/**
 * Output the list.-
 */
void outputList(SequentialListPtr paraList) {
    for(int i = 0; i < paraList->actualLength; i ++) {
        printf("%d ", paraList->data[i]);
    }// Of for i
    printf("\r\n");
}// Of outputList

/**
 * Output the memeory for the list.
 */
void outputMemory(SequentialListPtr paraListPtr) {
    printf("The address of the structure: %ld\r\n", paraListPtr);
    printf("The address of actualLength: %ld\r\n", ¶ListPtr->actualLength);
    printf("The address of data: %ld\r\n", ¶ListPtr->data);
    printf("The address of actual data: %ld\r\n", ¶ListPtr->data[0]);
    printf("The address of second data: %ld\r\n", ¶ListPtr->data[1]);
}// Of outputMemory

/**
 * Initialize a sequential list. No error checking for this function.
 * @param paraListPtr The pointer to the list. It must be a pointer to change the list.
 * @param paraValues An int array storing all elements.
 */
SequentialListPtr sequentialListInit(int paraData[], int paraLength) {
	SequentialListPtr resultPtr = (SequentialList*)malloc(sizeof(SequentialList));
	for (int i = 0; i < paraLength; i ++) {
		resultPtr->data[i] = paraData[i];
	}// Of for i
	resultPtr->actualLength = paraLength;

	return resultPtr;
}//Of sequentialListInit

/**
 * Insert an element into a sequential linear list.
 * @param paraListPtr The pointer to the list. It must be a pointer to change the list.
 * @param paraPosition The position, e.g., 0 stands for inserting at the first position.
 * @param paraValue The value to be inserted.
 */
void sequentialListInsert(SequentialListPtr paraListPtr, int paraPosition, int paraValue) {
    // Step 1. Space check.
    if (paraListPtr->actualLength >= LIST_MAX_LENGTH) {
        printf("Cannot insert element: list full.\r\n");
        return;
    }//Of if

    // Step 2. Position check.
    if (paraPosition > paraListPtr->actualLength) {
        printf("Cannot insert element: the position %d is bigger than the list length %d.\r\n", paraPosition, paraListPtr->actualLength);
        return;
    }//Of if

    // Step 3. Move the remaining part.
    for (int i = paraListPtr->actualLength; i > paraPosition; i --) {
        paraListPtr->data[i] = paraListPtr->data[i - 1];
    }//Of for i

    // Step 4. Insert.
    paraListPtr->data[paraPosition] = paraValue;

    // Update the length.
    paraListPtr->actualLength ++;
}// Of sequentialListInsert

/**
 * Test the insert function.
 */
void sequentialInsertTest() {
	int i;
	int tempArray[5] = {3, 5, 2, 7, 4};

    printf("---- sequentialInsertTest begins. ----\r\n");

	// Initialize.
    SequentialListPtr tempList = sequentialListInit(tempArray, 5);
    printf("After initialization, the list is: ");
	outputList(tempList);

	// Insert to the first.
    printf("Now insert to the first, the list is: ");
	sequentialListInsert(tempList, 0, 8);
	outputList(tempList);

	// Insert to the last.
    printf("Now insert to the last, the list is: ");
	sequentialListInsert(tempList, 6, 9);
	outputList(tempList);

	// Insert beyond the tail.
    printf("Now insert beyond the tail. \r\n");
	sequentialListInsert(tempList, 8, 9);
    printf("The list is:");
	outputList(tempList);

	// Insert to position 3.
	for (i = 0; i < 5; i ++) {
		printf("Inserting %d.\r\n", (i + 10));
		sequentialListInsert(tempList, 0, (i + 10));
		outputList(tempList);
	}//Of for i

    printf("---- sequentialInsertTest ends. ----\r\n");
}// Of sequentialInsertTest

/**
 * Delete an element from a sequential linear list.
 * @param paraListPtr The pointer to the list. It must be a pointer to change the list.
 * @param paraPosition The position, e.g., 0 stands for inserting at the first position.
 * @return The deleted value.
 */
int sequentialListDelete(SequentialListPtr paraListPtr, int paraPosition) {
    // Step 1. Position check.
    if (paraPosition < 0) {
        printf("Invalid position: %d.\r\n", paraPosition);
        return -1;
    }//Of if

    if (paraPosition >= paraListPtr->actualLength) {
        printf("Cannot delete element: the position %d is beyond the list length %d.\r\n", paraPosition, paraListPtr->actualLength);
        return -1;
    }//Of if

    // Step 2. Move the remaining part.
	int resultValue = paraListPtr->data[paraPosition];
    for (int i = paraPosition; i < paraListPtr->actualLength; i ++) {
        paraListPtr->data[i] = paraListPtr->data[i + 1];
    }//Of for i

    // Step 3. Update the length.
    paraListPtr->actualLength --;

	// Step 4. Return the value.
	return resultValue;
}// Of sequentialListDelete

/**
 * Test the delete function.
 */
void sequentialDeleteTest() {
	int tempArray[5] = {3, 5, 2, 7, 4};

    printf("---- sequentialDeleteTest begins. ----\r\n");

	// Initialize.
    SequentialListPtr tempList = sequentialListInit(tempArray, 5);
    printf("After initialization, the list is: ");
	outputList(tempList);

	// Delete the first.
    printf("Now delete the first, the list is: ");
	sequentialListDelete(tempList, 0);
	outputList(tempList);

	// Delete to the last.
    printf("Now delete the last, the list is: ");
	sequentialListDelete(tempList, 3);
	outputList(tempList);

	// Delete the second.
    printf("Now delete the second, the list is: ");
	sequentialListDelete(tempList, 1);
	outputList(tempList);

	// Delete the second.
    printf("Now delete the 5th, the list is: ");
	sequentialListDelete(tempList, 5);
	outputList(tempList);

	// Delete the second.
    printf("Now delete the (-6)th, the list is: ");
	sequentialListDelete(tempList, -6);
	outputList(tempList);

    printf("---- sequentialDeleteTest ends. ----\r\n");

	outputMemory(tempList);
}// Of sequentialDeleteTest

/**
 * Locate an element in the list.
 * @param paraListPtr The pointer to the list.
 * @param paraValue the indicated value.
 * @return The position of the value, or  -1 indicating not exists
 */
int locateElement(SequentialListPtr paraListPtr, int paraValue)
 {
    int i;
    for(i=0;iactualLength;i++)
	{
	   if(paraListPtr->data[i]==paraValue)
	   {
	   	return i;
	   }
	}
	return -1; 
}// Of locateElement

/**
 * Get an element in the list.
 * @param paraListPtr The pointer to the list.
 * @param paraPosition The given position.
 * @return The position of the value, or  -1 indicating not exists
 */
int GetElement(SequentialListPtr paraListPtr, int paraPosition)
//取值 。i:为要取的值得位置,&e:为i位置的接受变量,并且返回主函数 
{
    int i = paraPosition;
   
	if(i<0||i>=paraListPtr->actualLength)//判断i的取值是否超范围 
	{
		printf("不合法地址\n");//如果超范围,返回ERROR,并结束 
		return -1;
	}
	return paraListPtr->data[i];
}

/**
 * Clear elements in the list.
 * @param paraListPtr The pointer to the list.
 * @return The position of the value, or  -1 indicating not exists
 */
void clearList(SequentialListPtr paraListPtr) 
{
    free(paraListPtr);//释放内存
	paraListPtr->actualLength = 0;
}// Of clearList
/**
 The entrance.
 */
 int priorElement(SequentialList *paraList,int i)
{ 
     if(i>paraList->actualLength&&i<1)
  {
     printf("非法位置\n");
     return 0;
  }
    else
    return paraList->data[i-2];
}


int main() {
	sequentialInsertTest();
	sequentialDeleteTest();
}// Of main

运行结果

Inserting 11.
11 10 8 3 5 2 7 4 9
Inserting 12.
12 11 10 8 3 5 2 7 4 9
Inserting 13.
Cannot insert element: list full.
12 11 10 8 3 5 2 7 4 9
Inserting 14.
Cannot insert element: list full.
12 11 10 8 3 5 2 7 4 9
---- sequentialInsertTest ends. ----
---- sequentialDeleteTest begins. ----
After initialization, the list is: 3 5 2 7 4
Now delete the first, the list is: 5 2 7 4
Now delete the last, the list is: 5 2 7
Now delete the second, the list is: 5 7
Now delete the 5th, the list is: Cannot delete element: the position 5 is beyond the list length 2.
5 7
Now delete the (-6)th, the list is: Invalid position: -6.
5 7
---- sequentialDeleteTest ends. ----
The address of the structure: 7738432
The address of actualLength: 7738432
The address of data: 7738436
The address of actual data: 7738436
The address of second data: 7738440

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