python调用bash shell脚本方法

1. os.system()

help(os.system)

1.1. demo

  • os.system(command):该方法在调用完shell脚本后,返回一个16位的二进制数,
  • 低位为杀死所调用脚本的信号号码,高位为脚本的退出状态码,
  • 即脚本中exit 1的代码执行后,os.system函数返回值的高位数则是1,如果低位数是0的情况下,
  • 则函数的返回值是0x0100,换算为十进制得到256。
  • 要获得os.system的正确返回值,可以使用位移运算(将返回值右移8位)还原返回值:
>>> import os
>>> os.system("./test.sh")
hello python!
hello world!
256
>>> n>>8
1

2. os.popen()

help(os.system)

2.1 demo

os.popen(command):这种调用方式是通过管道的方式来实现,函数返回一个file对象,
里面的内容是脚本输出的内容(可简单理解为echo输出的内容),使用os.popen调用test.sh的情况

>> import os
>>> os.popen("./test.sh")

>>> f=os.popen("./test.sh")
>>> f

>>> f.readlines()
['hello python!\n', 'hello world!\n']

3. commands模块

  • (1)commands.getstatusoutput(cmd),其以字符串的形式返回的是输出结果和状态码,即(status,output)。
  • (2)commands.getoutput(cmd),返回cmd的输出结果。
  • (3)commands.getstatus(file),返回ls -l file的执行结果字符串,调用了getoutput,不建议使用此方法

4. subprocess

subprocess模块,允许创建很多子进程,创建的时候能指定子进程和子进程的输入、输出、错误输出管道,执行后能获取输出结果和执行状态。

  • (1)subprocess.run():python3.5中新增的函数, 执行指定的命令, 等待命令执行完成后返回一个包含执行结果的CompletedProcess类的实例。
  • (2)subprocess.call():执行指定的命令, 返回命令执行状态, 功能类似os.system(cmd)。
  • (3)subprocess.check_call():python2.5中新增的函数, 执行指定的命令, 如果执行成功则返回状态码, 否则抛出异常。

说明:subprocess.run(args, *, stdin=None, input=None, stdout=None, stderr=None, shell=False, timeout=None, check=False, universal_newlines=False)
subprocess.call(args, *, stdin=None, stdout=None, stderr=None, shell=False, timeout=None)
subprocess.check_call(args, *, stdin=None, stdout=None, stderr=None, shell=False, timeout=None)

args:表示shell指令,若以字符串形式给出shell指令,如"ls -l “则需要使shell = Ture。否则默认已数组形式表示shell变量,如"ls”,"-l"。
当使用比较复杂的shell语句时,可以先使用shlex模块的shlex.split()方法来帮助格式化命令,然后在传递给run()方法或Popen

4.1 demo

Stubs for subprocess

Based on http://docs.python.org/2/library/subprocess.html and Python 3 stub

from typing import Sequence, Any, Mapping, Callable, Tuple, IO, Union, Optional, List, Text

_FILE = Union[None, int, IO[Any]]
_TXT = Union[bytes, Text]
_CMD = Union[_TXT, Sequence[_TXT]]
_ENV = Union[Mapping[bytes, _TXT], Mapping[Text, _TXT]]

# Same args as Popen.__init__
def call(args: _CMD,
     bufsize: int = ...,
     executable: _TXT = ...,
     stdin: _FILE = ...,
     stdout: _FILE = ...,
     stderr: _FILE = ...,
     preexec_fn: Callable[[], Any] = ...,
     close_fds: bool = ...,
     shell: bool = ...,
     cwd: _TXT = ...,
     env: _ENV = ...,
     universal_newlines: bool = ...,
     startupinfo: Any = ...,
     creationflags: int = ...) -> int: ...

def check_call(args: _CMD,
        bufsize: int = ...,
        executable: _TXT = ...,
        stdin: _FILE = ...,
        stdout: _FILE = ...,
        stderr: _FILE = ...,
        preexec_fn: Callable[[], Any] = ...,
        close_fds: bool = ...,
        shell: bool = ...,
        cwd: _TXT = ...,
        env: _ENV = ...,
        universal_newlines: bool = ...,
        startupinfo: Any = ...,
        creationflags: int = ...) -> int: ...

# Same args as Popen.__init__ except for stdout
def check_output(args: _CMD,
         bufsize: int = ...,
         executable: _TXT = ...,
         stdin: _FILE = ...,
         stderr: _FILE = ...,
         preexec_fn: Callable[[], Any] = ...,
         close_fds: bool = ...,
         shell: bool = ...,
         cwd: _TXT = ...,
         env: _ENV = ...,
         universal_newlines: bool = ...,
         startupinfo: Any = ...,
         creationflags: int = ...) -> bytes: ...

PIPE = ... # type: int
STDOUT = ... # type: int

class CalledProcessError(Exception):
  returncode = 0
  # morally: _CMD
  cmd = ... # type: Any
  # morally: Optional[bytes]
  output = ... # type: Any

  def __init__(self,
         returncode: int,
         cmd: _CMD,
         output: Optional[bytes] = ...) -> None: ...

class Popen:
  stdin = ... # type: Optional[IO[Any]]
  stdout = ... # type: Optional[IO[Any]]
  stderr = ... # type: Optional[IO[Any]]
  pid = 0
  returncode = 0

  def __init__(self,
         args: _CMD,
         bufsize: int = ...,
         executable: Optional[_TXT] = ...,
         stdin: Optional[_FILE] = ...,
         stdout: Optional[_FILE] = ...,
         stderr: Optional[_FILE] = ...,
         preexec_fn: Optional[Callable[[], Any]] = ...,
         close_fds: bool = ...,
         shell: bool = ...,
         cwd: Optional[_TXT] = ...,
         env: Optional[_ENV] = ...,
         universal_newlines: bool = ...,
         startupinfo: Optional[Any] = ...,
         creationflags: int = ...) -> None: ...

  def poll(self) -> int: ...
  def wait(self) -> int: ...
  # morally: -> Tuple[Optional[bytes], Optional[bytes]]
  def communicate(self, input: Optional[_TXT] = ...) -> Tuple[Any, Any]: ...
  def send_signal(self, signal: int) -> None: ...
  def terminate(self) -> None: ...
  def kill(self) -> None: ...
  def __enter__(self) -> 'Popen': ...
  def __exit__(self, type, value, traceback) -> bool: ...

# Windows-only: STARTUPINFO etc.

STD_INPUT_HANDLE = ... # type: Any
STD_OUTPUT_HANDLE = ... # type: Any
STD_ERROR_HANDLE = ... # type: Any
SW_HIDE = ... # type: Any
STARTF_USESTDHANDLES = ... # type: Any
STARTF_USESHOWWINDOW = ... # type: Any
CREATE_NEW_CONSOLE = ... # type: Any
CREATE_NEW_PROCESS_GROUP = ... # type: Any

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