如何利用python写GUI及生成.exe可执行文件

一.GUI(Graphical User Interface(图形用户接口))

1.导入需要用到的包

import tkinter as tk
import tkinter.messagebox
import copy
import os

2.获取文件夹中所有图片

def get_picture(dirs):
    '''获得所有图片'''
    picture_list = []
    for dir, dir_abs, files in os.walk(dirs):
        for file in files:
            if file.endswith('.png'):  # 注意检查分析数据格式
                picture_list.append(os.path.join(dir, file))
    return picture_list

3.定义一个类windows

class Window:
    button_list = []
    object_list = []
    pictures = get_picture("F:\\pic\\class-1\\classresnet\\data\\dangerous")
    file = pictures[0]
    is_show = True
    index = 0
    image_file = ''

4.创建窗口和frame

    def __init__(self):
        '''创建窗口和frame'''
        self.window = tk.Tk()
        self.window.title('护目镜安全检测')
        self.window.geometry('600x400')
        self.frame = tk.Frame(self.window)
        self.frame.pack()
        self.frame_l = tk.Frame(self.frame)
        self.frame_r = tk.Frame(self.frame)
        self.frame_l.pack(side='left')
        self.frame_r.pack(side='right')
        self.frame_ll = tk.Frame(self.frame_r)
        self.frame_rr = tk.Frame(self.frame_r)
        self.frame_ll.pack(side='left')
        self.frame_rr.pack(side='right')

5.定义需要用到的函数(下一页、上一页等按钮要用到的)

    def next_picture(self):
        '''下一张图片'''
        self.index = self.pictures.index(self.file)
        self.index += 1
        if self.index < len(self.pictures):
            self.checkout_button()
            self.file = self.pictures[self.index]
            self.create_canvas(self.file)
        else:
            self.index = len(self.pictures) - 1
            tkinter.messagebox.showinfo('提示', '已近是最后一张了')
 
    def checkout_button(self):
        '''判断列表中是否只有button对象'''
        object_list_copy = copy.copy(self.object_list)
        for ob in self.object_list:
            if ob in self.button_list:
                pass
            else:
                b = object_list_copy.pop(self.object_list.index(ob))
                b.destroy()
        self.object_list = object_list_copy
 
    def pre_picture(self):
        '''上一页'''
        self.index = self.pictures.index(self.file)
        self.index -= 1
        if self.index >= 0:
            self.checkout_button()
            self.file = self.pictures[self.index]
            self.create_canvas(self.file)
        else:
            self.index = 0
            tkinter.messagebox.showinfo('提示', '已经是第一张了')
 
    def show_picture(self):
        '''展示图片和翻页按钮'''
        self.file = self.pictures[0]
        if self.is_show:
            self.is_show = False
            self.create_canvas(self.file)
            button1 = tk.Button(self.frame_ll, text='上一张', font=('Arial', 12), width=10, height=1, bg='orange',
                                command=self.pre_picture, relief='ridge', )
            button1.pack()
            button2 = tk.Button(self.frame_rr, text='下一张', font=('Arial', 12), width=10, height=1, bg='orange',
                                command=self.next_picture, relief='ridge', )
            button2.pack()
            self.button_list.append(button1)
            self.button_list.append(button2)
            self.object_list.extend(self.button_list)
        else:
            self.is_show = True
            while self.object_list:
                o = self.object_list.pop()
                o.destroy()

6.创建按钮、画布,调用主程序

    def new_button(self):
        '''创建展示按钮'''"开始检测和显示结果可在此处新添加tk.button"
        tk.Button(self.frame_l, text='开始读取', font=('Arial Black', 12), width=10, height=1, bg='green',
                  command=self.show_picture, relief='ridge').pack()
        # tk.Button(self.frame_l, text='开始检测', font=('Arial Black', 12), width=10, height=1, bg='blue',command=classresnet, relief='ridge').pack()
 
    def create_canvas(self, file):
        '''用画布展示图片'''
        self.image_file = tk.PhotoImage(file=file)
        canvas = tk.Canvas(self.frame_r, height=500, width=600, bg='gray')
        canvas.create_image(1, 1, anchor='nw', image=self.image_file)
        canvas.pack()
        self.object_list.append(canvas)
 
    def run(self):
        '''主程序调用'''
        self.window.mainloop()
 
if __name__ == '__main__':
 
    w = Window()
    w.new_button()
    w.run()

效果展示

如何利用python写GUI及生成.exe可执行文件_第1张图片如何利用python写GUI及生成.exe可执行文件_第2张图片

完整代码

import tkinter as tk
import tkinter.messagebox
import copy
import os
# from glob2 import glob
# import main
 
"""Graphical User Interface(图形用户接口)"""
def get_picture(dirs):
    '''获得所有图片'''
    picture_list = []
    for dir, dir_abs, files in os.walk(dirs):
        for file in files:
            if file.endswith('.png'):  # 注意检查分析数据格式
                picture_list.append(os.path.join(dir, file))
    return picture_list
 
 
 
class Window:
    button_list = []
    object_list = []
 
    # for pngfile in glob("F:\\pic\\class-1\\classresnet\\datas\\*.png"):
    #     main.image_demo()
    #     output_dir = "F:\\pic\\class-1\\classresnet\\data\\try"  # 保存截取的图像目录
    #     print('图片获取完成 。。。!')
    #
    # main.classresnet()
 
    pictures = get_picture("F:\\pic\\class-1\\classresnet\\data\\dangerous")
    file = pictures[0]
    is_show = True
    index = 0
    image_file = ''
 
    def __init__(self):
        '''创建窗口和frame'''
        self.window = tk.Tk()
        self.window.title('护目镜安全检测')
        self.window.geometry('600x400')
        self.frame = tk.Frame(self.window)
        self.frame.pack()
        self.frame_l = tk.Frame(self.frame)
        self.frame_r = tk.Frame(self.frame)
        self.frame_l.pack(side='left')
        self.frame_r.pack(side='right')
        self.frame_ll = tk.Frame(self.frame_r)
        self.frame_rr = tk.Frame(self.frame_r)
        self.frame_ll.pack(side='left')
        self.frame_rr.pack(side='right')
 
    def next_picture(self):
        '''下一张图片'''
        self.index = self.pictures.index(self.file)
        self.index += 1
        if self.index < len(self.pictures):
            self.checkout_button()
            self.file = self.pictures[self.index]
            self.create_canvas(self.file)
        else:
            self.index = len(self.pictures) - 1
            tkinter.messagebox.showinfo('提示', '已近是最后一张了')
 
    def checkout_button(self):
        '''判断列表中是否只有button对象'''
        object_list_copy = copy.copy(self.object_list)
        for ob in self.object_list:
            if ob in self.button_list:
                pass
            else:
                b = object_list_copy.pop(self.object_list.index(ob))
                b.destroy()
        self.object_list = object_list_copy
 
    def pre_picture(self):
        '''上一页'''
        self.index = self.pictures.index(self.file)
        self.index -= 1
        if self.index >= 0:
            self.checkout_button()
            self.file = self.pictures[self.index]
            self.create_canvas(self.file)
        else:
            self.index = 0
            tkinter.messagebox.showinfo('提示', '已经是第一张了')
 
    def show_picture(self):
        '''展示图片和翻页按钮'''
        self.file = self.pictures[0]
        if self.is_show:
            self.is_show = False
            self.create_canvas(self.file)
            button1 = tk.Button(self.frame_ll, text='上一张', font=('Arial', 12), width=10, height=1, bg='orange',
                                command=self.pre_picture, relief='ridge', )
            button1.pack()
            button2 = tk.Button(self.frame_rr, text='下一张', font=('Arial', 12), width=10, height=1, bg='orange',
                                command=self.next_picture, relief='ridge', )
            button2.pack()
            self.button_list.append(button1)
            self.button_list.append(button2)
            self.object_list.extend(self.button_list)
        else:
            self.is_show = True
            while self.object_list:
                o = self.object_list.pop()
                o.destroy()
 
    # def code_button(self):
    #     tk.Button(self.frame_l, text='开始检测', font=('Arial Black', 12), width=10, height=1, bg='blue',
    #               command=main.classresnet, relief='ridge').pack()
 
    def new_button(self):
        '''创建展示按钮'''"开始检测和显示结果可在此处新添加tk.button"
        tk.Button(self.frame_l, text='开始读取', font=('Arial Black', 12), width=10, height=1, bg='green',
                  command=self.show_picture, relief='ridge').pack()
        # tk.Button(self.frame_l, text='开始检测', font=('Arial Black', 12), width=10, height=1, bg='blue',command=classresnet, relief='ridge').pack()
 
    def create_canvas(self, file):
        '''用画布展示图片'''
        self.image_file = tk.PhotoImage(file=file)
        canvas = tk.Canvas(self.frame_r, height=500, width=600, bg='gray')
        canvas.create_image(1, 1, anchor='nw', image=self.image_file)
        canvas.pack()
        self.object_list.append(canvas)
 
    def run(self):
        '''主程序调用'''
        self.window.mainloop()
 
if __name__ == '__main__':
 
 
    w = Window()
    w.new_button()
    w.run()
 
 
 
 
 
 

二.生成exe文件

在windows下,可以使用pyinstaller打包python程序为exe可执行程序。

1.安装pyinstaller

在cmd命令行窗口运行以下命令安装pyinstaller

pip install pyinstaller

2.打包python程序

在python程序所在目录,执行以下命令

pyinstaller -F xxx.py -w

注:如果不加-w,生成的exe文件会同时出现命令行窗口

3.运行exe文件

打包完成后,在对应目录会出现build和dist文件夹,exe文件就出现在dist文件夹,直接运行即可。

4.常用命令参数

(1) -F 指定打包后只生成一个exe格式的文件(dist文件只有一个exe格式的文件T1)

pyinstaller -F T1.py

(2) -i 改变生成程序的icon图标

pyinstaller -F -i ./my.ico T1.py

(3) -n NAME,–name=NAME 设置产生文件的名字(mypy)

pyinstaller -F -n mypy -i ./my.ico T1.py

效果展示

如何利用python写GUI及生成.exe可执行文件_第3张图片

执行exe应用

因为是exe应用,是可执行文件了,所以直接双击运行即可,运行效果如下图所示:

如何利用python写GUI及生成.exe可执行文件_第4张图片

总结

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