ERC-20 标准以及代码解读

什么是ERC20

据相关的数据显示,现在主流的代币基本上80%以上都是基于ERC20发行的。究竟什么是ERC20呢?为什么要基于ERC20发行代币呢?

可以把ERC20简单理解成以太坊上的一个代币协议,对于开发的同学来说,可以把协议理解为一种接口或者模板。遵守这些协议的代币我们可以认为是标准化的代币,而标准化带来的好处是兼容性好。这些标准化的代币可以被各种以太坊钱包支持,用于不同的平台和项目。比如现在很多的中心化以及去中心化交易所,他们接入的token都要求是ERC20的代币。 非标准化的代币无法接入。以太坊上运用最广泛的钱包metamask上面, 如果需要添加展示某个代币的话也要求这个token是标准代币。 比如下面是以太坊浏览器etherscan,在上面就可以列出排名靠前的erc20代币。

ERC-20 标准以及代码解读_第1张图片

所以如果你要是想在以太坊上发行代币融资流通,必须要遵守ERC20标准。

ERC20的标准接口

contract ERC20 {
    function name() constant returns (string name)
    function symbol() constant returns (string symbol)
    function decimals() constant returns (uint8 decimals)
    function totalSupply() constant returns (uint totalSupply);
    function balanceOf(address _owner) constant returns (uint balance);
    function transfer(address _to, uint _value) returns (bool success);
    function transferFrom(address _from, address _to, uint _value) returns (bool success);
    function approve(address _spender, uint _value) returns (bool success);
    function allowance(address _owner, address _spender) constant returns (uint remaining);
    event Transfer(address indexed _from, address indexed _to, uint _value);
    event Approval(address indexed _owner, address indexed _spender, uint _value);
}
    

1. name  
返回string类型的ERC20代币的名字,例如:Mytrade。

2. symbol
返回string类型的ERC20代币的符号,也就是代币的简称,例如:MYT。

3. decimals
支持几位小数点后几位。如果设置为3。也就是支持0.001表示。在智能合约里面是没有小数点的数据类型的,代币的数量是通过uint256来存储,这个decimal代表的是uint256其中有几位是代表小数。

4. totalSupply
发行代币的总量,可以通过这个函数来获取。所有智能合约发行的代币总量是一定的,totalSupply必须设置初始值。如果不设置初始值,这个代币发行就说明有问题。

5. balanceOf
输入地址,可以获取该地址代币的余额。

6. transfer
调用transfer函数将自己的token转账给_to地址,_value为转账个数。

7. approve
批准_spender账户从自己的账户转移_value个token。可以分多次转移。

8. transferFrom
与approve搭配使用,approve批准之后,调用transferFrom函数来转移token。

9. allowance
返回_spender还能提取token的个数。

approve、transferFrom及allowance解释:
approve是授权第三方(比如某个服务合约)从发送者账户转移代币,然后通过 transferFrom() 函数来执行具体的转移操作。

账户A有1000个ETH,想允许B账户随意调用他的100个ETH,过程如下:

  • A账户按照以下形式调用approve
  • B账户想用这100个ETH中的10个ETH给C账户,调用transferFrom(A, C, 10);
  • 调用allowance(A, B)可以查看B账户还能够调用A账户多少个token。

ERC-20代码样板解读

USDT是ERC20代币里面使用场景最为广泛稳定币, 下面是其代码样板。 我们会发现这个里面除了上面提到的ERC20的标准之外, 我们看能看到下面几个:

SafeMath类库

以太坊虚拟机(EVM)为整数指定固定大小的数据类型。这意味着一个整型变量只能有一定范围的数字表示。例如,一个 uint8 ,只能存储在范围 [0,255] 的数字。试图存储 256 到一个 uint8 将变成 0。不加注意的话,只要没有检查用户输入又执行计算,导致数字超出存储它们的数据类型允许的范围,Solidity 中的变量就可以被用来组织攻击。整数溢出的类型包括乘法溢出,加法溢出,减法溢出三种。所以SafeMath可以用来防止溢出。

Ownable基类

这个基类主要定义了Token是否有个所有者, 并且定义了所有者转移的方法。

/**
 *Submitted for verification at Etherscan.io on 2017-11-28
*/

pragma solidity ^0.4.17;

/**
 * @title SafeMath
 * @dev Math operations with safety checks that throw on error
 */
library SafeMath {
    function mul(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        if (a == 0) {
            return 0;
        }
        uint256 c = a * b;
        assert(c / a == b);
        return c;
    }

    function div(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        // assert(b > 0); // Solidity automatically throws when dividing by 0
        uint256 c = a / b;
        // assert(a == b * c + a % b); // There is no case in which this doesn't hold
        return c;
    }

    function sub(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        assert(b <= a);
        return a - b;
    }

    function add(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        uint256 c = a + b;
        assert(c >= a);
        return c;
    }
}

/**
 * @title Ownable
 * @dev The Ownable contract has an owner address, and provides basic authorization control
 * functions, this simplifies the implementation of "user permissions".
 */
contract Ownable {
    address public owner;

    /**
      * @dev The Ownable constructor sets the original `owner` of the contract to the sender
      * account.
      */
    function Ownable() public {
        owner = msg.sender;
    }

    /**
      * @dev Throws if called by any account other than the owner.
      */
    modifier onlyOwner() {
        require(msg.sender == owner);
        _;
    }

    /**
    * @dev Allows the current owner to transfer control of the contract to a newOwner.
    * @param newOwner The address to transfer ownership to.
    */
    function transferOwnership(address newOwner) public onlyOwner {
        if (newOwner != address(0)) {
            owner = newOwner;
        }
    }

}

/**
 * @title ERC20Basic
 * @dev Simpler version of ERC20 interface
 * @dev see https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs/issues/20
 */
contract ERC20Basic {
    uint public _totalSupply;
    function totalSupply() public constant returns (uint);
    function balanceOf(address who) public constant returns (uint);
    function transfer(address to, uint value) public;
    event Transfer(address indexed from, address indexed to, uint value);
}

/**
 * @title ERC20 interface
 * @dev see https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs/issues/20
 */
contract ERC20 is ERC20Basic {
    function allowance(address owner, address spender) public constant returns (uint);
    function transferFrom(address from, address to, uint value) public;
    function approve(address spender, uint value) public;
    event Approval(address indexed owner, address indexed spender, uint value);
}

/**
 * @title Basic token
 * @dev Basic version of StandardToken, with no allowances.
 */
contract BasicToken is Ownable, ERC20Basic {
    using SafeMath for uint;

    mapping(address => uint) public balances;

    // additional variables for use if transaction fees ever became necessary
    uint public basisPointsRate = 0;
    uint public maximumFee = 0;

    /**
    * @dev Fix for the ERC20 short address attack.
    */
    modifier onlyPayloadSize(uint size) {
        require(!(msg.data.length < size + 4));
        _;
    }

    /**
    * @dev transfer token for a specified address
    * @param _to The address to transfer to.
    * @param _value The amount to be transferred.
    */
    function transfer(address _to, uint _value) public onlyPayloadSize(2 * 32) {
        uint fee = (_value.mul(basisPointsRate)).div(10000);
        if (fee > maximumFee) {
            fee = maximumFee;
        }
        uint sendAmount = _value.sub(fee);
        balances[msg.sender] = balances[msg.sender].sub(_value);
        balances[_to] = balances[_to].add(sendAmount);
        if (fee > 0) {
            balances[owner] = balances[owner].add(fee);
            Transfer(msg.sender, owner, fee);
        }
        Transfer(msg.sender, _to, sendAmount);
    }

    /**
    * @dev Gets the balance of the specified address.
    * @param _owner The address to query the the balance of.
    * @return An uint representing the amount owned by the passed address.
    */
    function balanceOf(address _owner) public constant returns (uint balance) {
        return balances[_owner];
    }

}

/**
 * @title Standard ERC20 token
 *
 * @dev Implementation of the basic standard token.
 * @dev https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs/issues/20
 * @dev Based oncode by FirstBlood: https://github.com/Firstbloodio/token/blob/master/smart_contract/FirstBloodToken.sol
 */
contract StandardToken is BasicToken, ERC20 {

    mapping (address => mapping (address => uint)) public allowed;

    uint public constant MAX_UINT = 2**256 - 1;

    /**
    * @dev Transfer tokens from one address to another
    * @param _from address The address which you want to send tokens from
    * @param _to address The address which you want to transfer to
    * @param _value uint the amount of tokens to be transferred
    */
    function transferFrom(address _from, address _to, uint _value) public onlyPayloadSize(3 * 32) {
        var _allowance = allowed[_from][msg.sender];

        // Check is not needed because sub(_allowance, _value) will already throw if this condition is not met
        // if (_value > _allowance) throw;

        uint fee = (_value.mul(basisPointsRate)).div(10000);
        if (fee > maximumFee) {
            fee = maximumFee;
        }
        if (_allowance < MAX_UINT) {
            allowed[_from][msg.sender] = _allowance.sub(_value);
        }
        uint sendAmount = _value.sub(fee);
        balances[_from] = balances[_from].sub(_value);
        balances[_to] = balances[_to].add(sendAmount);
        if (fee > 0) {
            balances[owner] = balances[owner].add(fee);
            Transfer(_from, owner, fee);
        }
        Transfer(_from, _to, sendAmount);
    }

    /**
    * @dev Approve the passed address to spend the specified amount of tokens on behalf of msg.sender.
    * @param _spender The address which will spend the funds.
    * @param _value The amount of tokens to be spent.
    */
    function approve(address _spender, uint _value) public onlyPayloadSize(2 * 32) {

        // To change the approve amount you first have to reduce the addresses`
        //  allowance to zero by calling `approve(_spender, 0)` if it is not
        //  already 0 to mitigate the race condition described here:
        //  https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs/issues/20#issuecomment-263524729
        require(!((_value != 0) && (allowed[msg.sender][_spender] != 0)));

        allowed[msg.sender][_spender] = _value;
        Approval(msg.sender, _spender, _value);
    }

    /**
    * @dev Function to check the amount of tokens than an owner allowed to a spender.
    * @param _owner address The address which owns the funds.
    * @param _spender address The address which will spend the funds.
    * @return A uint specifying the amount of tokens still available for the spender.
    */
    function allowance(address _owner, address _spender) public constant returns (uint remaining) {
        return allowed[_owner][_spender];
    }

}


/**
 * @title Pausable
 * @dev Base contract which allows children to implement an emergency stop mechanism.
 */
contract Pausable is Ownable {
  event Pause();
  event Unpause();

  bool public paused = false;


  /**
   * @dev Modifier to make a function callable only when the contract is not paused.
   */
  modifier whenNotPaused() {
    require(!paused);
    _;
  }

  /**
   * @dev Modifier to make a function callable only when the contract is paused.
   */
  modifier whenPaused() {
    require(paused);
    _;
  }

  /**
   * @dev called by the owner to pause, triggers stopped state
   */
  function pause() onlyOwner whenNotPaused public {
    paused = true;
    Pause();
  }

  /**
   * @dev called by the owner to unpause, returns to normal state
   */
  function unpause() onlyOwner whenPaused public {
    paused = false;
    Unpause();
  }
}

contract BlackList is Ownable, BasicToken {

    /////// Getters to allow the same blacklist to be used also by other contracts (including upgraded Tether) ///////
    function getBlackListStatus(address _maker) external constant returns (bool) {
        return isBlackListed[_maker];
    }

    function getOwner() external constant returns (address) {
        return owner;
    }

    mapping (address => bool) public isBlackListed;
    
    function addBlackList (address _evilUser) public onlyOwner {
        isBlackListed[_evilUser] = true;
        AddedBlackList(_evilUser);
    }

    function removeBlackList (address _clearedUser) public onlyOwner {
        isBlackListed[_clearedUser] = false;
        RemovedBlackList(_clearedUser);
    }

    function destroyBlackFunds (address _blackListedUser) public onlyOwner {
        require(isBlackListed[_blackListedUser]);
        uint dirtyFunds = balanceOf(_blackListedUser);
        balances[_blackListedUser] = 0;
        _totalSupply -= dirtyFunds;
        DestroyedBlackFunds(_blackListedUser, dirtyFunds);
    }

    event DestroyedBlackFunds(address _blackListedUser, uint _balance);

    event AddedBlackList(address _user);

    event RemovedBlackList(address _user);

}

contract UpgradedStandardToken is StandardToken{
    // those methods are called by the legacy contract
    // and they must ensure msg.sender to be the contract address
    function transferByLegacy(address from, address to, uint value) public;
    function transferFromByLegacy(address sender, address from, address spender, uint value) public;
    function approveByLegacy(address from, address spender, uint value) public;
}

contract TetherToken is Pausable, StandardToken, BlackList {

    string public name;
    string public symbol;
    uint public decimals;
    address public upgradedAddress;
    bool public deprecated;

    //  The contract can be initialized with a number of tokens
    //  All the tokens are deposited to the owner address
    //
    // @param _balance Initial supply of the contract
    // @param _name Token Name
    // @param _symbol Token symbol
    // @param _decimals Token decimals
    function TetherToken(uint _initialSupply, string _name, string _symbol, uint _decimals) public {
        _totalSupply = _initialSupply;
        name = _name;
        symbol = _symbol;
        decimals = _decimals;
        balances[owner] = _initialSupply;
        deprecated = false;
    }

    // Forward ERC20 methods to upgraded contract if this one is deprecated
    function transfer(address _to, uint _value) public whenNotPaused {
        require(!isBlackListed[msg.sender]);
        if (deprecated) {
            return UpgradedStandardToken(upgradedAddress).transferByLegacy(msg.sender, _to, _value);
        } else {
            return super.transfer(_to, _value);
        }
    }

    // Forward ERC20 methods to upgraded contract if this one is deprecated
    function transferFrom(address _from, address _to, uint _value) public whenNotPaused {
        require(!isBlackListed[_from]);
        if (deprecated) {
            return UpgradedStandardToken(upgradedAddress).transferFromByLegacy(msg.sender, _from, _to, _value);
        } else {
            return super.transferFrom(_from, _to, _value);
        }
    }

    // Forward ERC20 methods to upgraded contract if this one is deprecated
    function balanceOf(address who) public constant returns (uint) {
        if (deprecated) {
            return UpgradedStandardToken(upgradedAddress).balanceOf(who);
        } else {
            return super.balanceOf(who);
        }
    }

    // Forward ERC20 methods to upgraded contract if this one is deprecated
    function approve(address _spender, uint _value) public onlyPayloadSize(2 * 32) {
        if (deprecated) {
            return UpgradedStandardToken(upgradedAddress).approveByLegacy(msg.sender, _spender, _value);
        } else {
            return super.approve(_spender, _value);
        }
    }

    // Forward ERC20 methods to upgraded contract if this one is deprecated
    function allowance(address _owner, address _spender) public constant returns (uint remaining) {
        if (deprecated) {
            return StandardToken(upgradedAddress).allowance(_owner, _spender);
        } else {
            return super.allowance(_owner, _spender);
        }
    }

    // deprecate current contract in favour of a new one
    function deprecate(address _upgradedAddress) public onlyOwner {
        deprecated = true;
        upgradedAddress = _upgradedAddress;
        Deprecate(_upgradedAddress);
    }

    // deprecate current contract if favour of a new one
    function totalSupply() public constant returns (uint) {
        if (deprecated) {
            return StandardToken(upgradedAddress).totalSupply();
        } else {
            return _totalSupply;
        }
    }

    // Issue a new amount of tokens
    // these tokens are deposited into the owner address
    //
    // @param _amount Number of tokens to be issued
    function issue(uint amount) public onlyOwner {
        require(_totalSupply + amount > _totalSupply);
        require(balances[owner] + amount > balances[owner]);

        balances[owner] += amount;
        _totalSupply += amount;
        Issue(amount);
    }

    // Redeem tokens.
    // These tokens are withdrawn from the owner address
    // if the balance must be enough to cover the redeem
    // or the call will fail.
    // @param _amount Number of tokens to be issued
    function redeem(uint amount) public onlyOwner {
        require(_totalSupply >= amount);
        require(balances[owner] >= amount);

        _totalSupply -= amount;
        balances[owner] -= amount;
        Redeem(amount);
    }

    function setParams(uint newBasisPoints, uint newMaxFee) public onlyOwner {
        // Ensure transparency by hardcoding limit beyond which fees can never be added
        require(newBasisPoints < 20);
        require(newMaxFee < 50);

        basisPointsRate = newBasisPoints;
        maximumFee = newMaxFee.mul(10**decimals);

        Params(basisPointsRate, maximumFee);
    }

    // Called when new token are issued
    event Issue(uint amount);

    // Called when tokens are redeemed
    event Redeem(uint amount);

    // Called when contract is deprecated
    event Deprecate(address newAddress);

    // Called if contract ever adds fees
    event Params(uint feeBasisPoints, uint maxFee);
}

作者:Bernie G、Time
原文链接:http://blockgeek.com/b748/82f2


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ERC-20 标准以及代码解读_第2张图片

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