深入探究Java中的类加载机制

前言

学生时代应抱着问题去学习一门语言,例如:在学习java语言的过程中,我遇到过java主方法main里面参数到底是存的什么?还有java语言的Object是如何成为所有类的父类的?java虚拟机到底如何解析字节码文件的?java是纯面向对象编程语言那么它的类是怎样的加载过程?今天我就带着大家一探究竟。

步入正题

首先我们都熟悉DOS界面去执行我们编写的源码,第一步使用javac xxx.java命令,这个命令其实就是调用java的编译器,每一门语言都有自己的编译器,有的源文件是可以直接编译为可执行文件。但是java的编译器只能将源码编译成二进制的字节码文件xxx.class,最后在由java命令调用JVM(java虚拟机)。当我们要使用某个类时,虚拟机就会去加载它的字节码文件,并创建对应的对象,把class文件加载到JVM内存的过程就是类的加载过程。

类的加载过程:

深入探究Java中的类加载机制_第1张图片

1.加载

加载是类加载过程中的一个阶段,这个阶段会在内存中生成一个代表这个类的 java.lang.Class 对象,作为方法区这个类的各种数据的入口。注意这里不一定非得要从一个 Class 文件获取,这里既可以从 ZIP 包中读取(比如从 jar 包和 war 包中读取),也可以在运行时计算生成(动态代理),也可以由其它文件生成(比如将 JSP 文件转换成对应的 Class 类)。

2.验证

这一阶段的主要目的是为了确保 Class 文件的字节流中包含的信息是否符合当前虚拟机的要求,并且不会危害虚拟机自身的安全。

3.准备

准备阶段是正式为类变量分配内存并设置类变量的初始值阶段,即在方法区中分配这些变量所使用的内存空间。注意这里所说的初始值概念,比如一个类变量定义为:

public static int v = 8080;

实际上变量 v 在准备阶段过后的初始值为 0 而不是 8080,将 v 赋值为 8080 的 put static 指令是程序被编译后,存放于类构造器方法之中。

但是注意如果声明为:

public static final int v = 8080;

在编译阶段会为 v 生成 ConstantValue 属性,在准备阶段虚拟机会根据 ConstantValue 属性将 v赋值为 8080。

4.解析

解析阶段是指虚拟机将常量池中的符号引用替换为直接引用的过程。符号引用就是 class 文件中的:CONSTANT_Class_info、CONSTANT_Field_info、CONSTANT_Method_info等类型的常量。

符号引用: 与虚拟机实现的布局无关,引用的目标并不一定要已经加载到内存中。各种虚拟机实现的内存布局可以各不相同,但是它们能接受的符号引用必须是一致的,因为符号引用的字面量形式明确定义在 Java 虚拟机规范的 Class 文件格式中。

直接引用: 可以是指向目标的指针,相对偏移量或是一个能间接定位到目标的句柄。如果有了直接引用,那引用的目标必定已经在内存中存在。

5.初始化

初始化阶段是类加载最后一个阶段,前面的类加载阶段之后,除了在加载阶段可以自定义类加载器以外,其它操作都由 JVM 主导。到了初始阶段,才开始真正执行类中定义的 Java 程序代码。

初始化阶段是执行类构造器方法的过程。方法是由编译器自动收集类中的类变
量的赋值操作和静态语句块中的语句合并而成的。虚拟机会保证子方法执行之前,父类
方法已经执行完毕,如果一个类中没有对静态变量赋值也没有静态语句块,那么编译
器可以不为这个类生成()方法。

以下6种情况不会执行类的初始化

  1. 通过子类引用父类的静态字段,只会触发父类的初始化,而不会触发子类的初始化。
  2. 定义对象数组,不会触发该类的初始化。
  3. 常量在编译期间会存入调用类的常量池中,本质上并没有直接引用定义常量的类,不会触发定义常量所在的类。
  4. 通过类名获取 Class 对象,不会触发类的初始化。
  5. 通过 Class.forName 加载指定类时,如果指定参数 initialize 为 false 时,也不会触发类初始化,其实这个参数是告诉虚拟机,是否要对类进行初始化。
  6. 通过 ClassLoader 默认的 loadClass 方法,也不会触发初始化动作。

类加载器

以上类的加载过程肯定离不开java的类加载器,接下来我们谈谈类加载器,虚拟机设计团队把加载动作放到 JVM 外部实现,以便让应用程序决定如何获取所需的类,JVM 提供了 3 种类加载器:

1.启动类加载器Bootstrap ClassLoader

负责加载 JAVA_HOME\lib 目录中的,或通过-Xbootclasspath 参数指定路径中的,且被虚拟机认可(按文件名识别,如 rt.jar)的类。

2.扩展类加载器(Extension ClassLoader)

负责加载 JAVA_HOME\lib\ext 目录中的,或通过 java.ext.dirs 系统变量指定路径中的类库。

3.应用程序类加载器(Application ClassLoader)

负责加载用户路径(classpath)上的类库。JVM 通过双亲委派模型进行类的加载,当然我们也可以通过继承 java.lang.ClassLoader实现自定义的类加载器。

深入探究Java中的类加载机制_第2张图片

双亲委派: 在应用程序类加载器中采用了双亲委派机制,如果一个程序需要加载一个类时,此类并不会立马就去执行加载器,而是先去执行父类的类加载器,如果父类还有父类的话,会层层往上执行,如果发现父类的类加载器并不能运行加载的话,在由本类去加载。

当一个类收到了类加载请求,他首先不会尝试自己去加载这个类,而是把这个请求委派给父类去完成,每一个层次类加载器都是如此,因此所有的加载请求都应该传送到启动类加载其中,只有当父类加载器反馈自己无法完成这个请求的时候(在它的加载路径下没有找到所需加载的Class),子类加载器才会尝试自己去加载。

采用双亲委派的一个好处是比如加载位于 rt.jar 包中的类 java.lang.Object,不管是哪个加载器加载这个类,最终都是委托给顶层的启动类加载器进行加载,这样就保证了使用不同的类加载器最终得到的都是同样一个 Object 对象。

深入探究Java中的类加载机制_第3张图片

protected Class loadClass(String name, boolean resolve)
        throws ClassNotFoundException
    {
        synchronized (getClassLoadingLock(name)) {
            // First, check if the class has already been loaded
            // 如果 Java 虚拟机已将此加载器记录为具有给定二进制名称的某个类的启动加载器,
            //则返回该二进制名称的类。
            Class c = findLoadedClass(name);
            if (c == null) {
                long t0 = System.nanoTime();
                try {
                    if (parent != null) {
                        c = parent.loadClass(name, false);//继续查找父类的类加载
                    } else {
                        c = findBootstrapClassOrNull(name);//返回启动类加载器加载的类
                    }
                } catch (ClassNotFoundException e) {
                    // ClassNotFoundException thrown if class not found
                    // from the non-null parent class loader
                }

                if (c == null) {
                    // If still not found, then invoke findClass in order
                    // to find the class.
                    long t1 = System.nanoTime();
                    c = findClass(name);

                    // this is the defining class loader; record the stats
                    sun.misc.PerfCounter.getParentDelegationTime().addTime(t1 - t0);
                    sun.misc.PerfCounter.getFindClassTime().addElapsedTimeFrom(t1);
                    sun.misc.PerfCounter.getFindClasses().increment();
                }
            }
            if (resolve) {
                resolveClass(c);
            }
            return c;
        }
    }

注意点:

1.loadClass()方法是ClassLoader类实现的,方法中的逻辑就是双亲委派机制

2.运行时加载自己指定的类,那么我们可以直接使用this.getClass().getClassLoder.loadClass(“className”),这样就可以直接调用ClassLoader的loadClass方法获取到class对象。

3.findClass(String name)

ClassLoader类中并没有实现findClass()方法的具体代码逻辑,取而代之的是抛出ClassNotFoundException异常

4.defineClass(byte[] b, int off, int len)

使用可选的 ProtectionDomain 将 ByteBuffer 转换为 Class 类的实例。如果该域为 null,则将默认域分配给 defineClass(String, byte[], int, int) 的文档中指定的类。这个类必须分析后才能使用。

有关包中定义的第一个类(它确定了包的证书集合)的规则,以及对类名称的限制,都与 defineClass(String, byte[], int, int, ProtectionDomain) 的文档中指定的相同。

调用形式为 cl.defineClass(name, bBuffer, pd) 的此方法所产生的结果与以下语句产生的结果相同 ,注意的是,如果直接调用defineClass()方法生成类的Class对象,这个类的Class对象并没有解析(也可以理解为链接阶段,毕竟解析是链接的最后一步),其解析操作需要等待初始化阶段进行。

protected Class findClass(String name) throws ClassNotFoundException {
	  // 获取类的字节数组
      byte[] classData = getClassData(name);  
      if (classData == null) {
          throw new ClassNotFoundException();
      } else {
	      //使用defineClass生成class对象
          return defineClass(name, classData, 0, classData.length);
      }
  }

5.URLClassLoader

在创建URLClassPath对象时,会根据传递过来的URL数组中的路径判断是文件还是jar包,即拓展类加载器ExtClassLoader和系统类加载器AppClassLoader,这两个类都继承自URLClassLoader,是sun.misc.Launcher的静态内部类。sun.misc.Launcher主要被系统用于启动主应用程序,ExtClassLoader和AppClassLoader都是由sun.misc.Launcher创建的。

6.类加载器的关系

深入探究Java中的类加载机制_第4张图片

7.注意class文件的显示加载和隐式加载

JVM加载class文件到内存的方式,显示加载就是直接调用类加载器加载class文件,例如:Class.forName()或者是this.getClass().getClassLoader().loadClass()加载class对象。隐式不会直接在代码里调用类加载器,而是通过虚拟机自动加载到内存中。

源码

/*
 * Copyright (c) 2013, 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
 * ORACLE PROPRIETARY/CONFIDENTIAL. Use is subject to license terms.
 *

 */
package java.lang;

import java.io.InputStream;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.File;
import java.lang.reflect.Constructor;
import java.lang.reflect.InvocationTargetException;
import java.net.MalformedURLException;
import java.net.URL;
import java.security.AccessController;
import java.security.AccessControlContext;
import java.security.CodeSource;
import java.security.Policy;
import java.security.PrivilegedAction;
import java.security.PrivilegedActionException;
import java.security.PrivilegedExceptionAction;
import java.security.ProtectionDomain;
import java.security.cert.Certificate;
import java.util.Collections;
import java.util.Enumeration;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.HashSet;
import java.util.Set;
import java.util.Stack;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.Vector;
import java.util.Hashtable;
import java.util.WeakHashMap;
import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentHashMap;
import sun.misc.CompoundEnumeration;
import sun.misc.Resource;
import sun.misc.URLClassPath;
import sun.misc.VM;
import sun.reflect.CallerSensitive;
import sun.reflect.Reflection;
import sun.reflect.misc.ReflectUtil;
import sun.security.util.SecurityConstants;

/**
 * A class loader is an object that is responsible for loading classes. The
 * class ClassLoader is an abstract class.  Given the binary name of a class, a class loader should attempt to
 * locate or generate data that constitutes a definition for the class.  A
 * typical strategy is to transform the name into a file name and then read a
 * "class file" of that name from a file system.
 *
 * 

Every {@link Class Class} object contains a {@link * Class#getClassLoader() reference} to the ClassLoader that defined * it. * *

Class objects for array classes are not created by class * loaders, but are created automatically as required by the Java runtime. * The class loader for an array class, as returned by {@link * Class#getClassLoader()} is the same as the class loader for its element * type; if the element type is a primitive type, then the array class has no * class loader. * *

Applications implement subclasses of ClassLoader in order to * extend the manner in which the Java virtual machine dynamically loads * classes. * *

Class loaders may typically be used by security managers to indicate * security domains. * *

The ClassLoader class uses a delegation model to search for * classes and resources. Each instance of ClassLoader has an * associated parent class loader. When requested to find a class or * resource, a ClassLoader instance will delegate the search for the * class or resource to its parent class loader before attempting to find the * class or resource itself. The virtual machine's built-in class loader, * called the "bootstrap class loader", does not itself have a parent but may * serve as the parent of a ClassLoader instance. * *

Class loaders that support concurrent loading of classes are known as * parallel capable class loaders and are required to register * themselves at their class initialization time by invoking the * {@link * #registerAsParallelCapable ClassLoader.registerAsParallelCapable} * method. Note that the ClassLoader class is registered as parallel * capable by default. However, its subclasses still need to register themselves * if they are parallel capable.
* In environments in which the delegation model is not strictly * hierarchical, class loaders need to be parallel capable, otherwise class * loading can lead to deadlocks because the loader lock is held for the * duration of the class loading process (see {@link #loadClass * loadClass} methods). * *

Normally, the Java virtual machine loads classes from the local file * system in a platform-dependent manner. For example, on UNIX systems, the * virtual machine loads classes from the directory defined by the * CLASSPATH environment variable. * *

However, some classes may not originate from a file; they may originate * from other sources, such as the network, or they could be constructed by an * application. The method {@link #defineClass(String, byte[], int, int) * defineClass} converts an array of bytes into an instance of class * Class. Instances of this newly defined class can be created using * {@link Class#newInstance Class.newInstance}. * *

The methods and constructors of objects created by a class loader may * reference other classes. To determine the class(es) referred to, the Java * virtual machine invokes the {@link #loadClass loadClass} method of * the class loader that originally created the class. * *

For example, an application could create a network class loader to * download class files from a server. Sample code might look like: * *

 *   ClassLoader loader = new NetworkClassLoader(host, port);
 *   Object main = loader.loadClass("Main", true).newInstance();
 *        . . .
 * 
* *

The network class loader subclass must define the methods {@link * #findClass findClass} and loadClassData to load a class * from the network. Once it has downloaded the bytes that make up the class, * it should use the method {@link #defineClass defineClass} to * create a class instance. A sample implementation is: * *

 *     class NetworkClassLoader extends ClassLoader {
 *         String host;
 *         int port;
 *
 *         public Class findClass(String name) {
 *             byte[] b = loadClassData(name);
 *             return defineClass(name, b, 0, b.length);
 *         }
 *
 *         private byte[] loadClassData(String name) {
 *             // load the class data from the connection
 *              . . .
 *         }
 *     }
 * 
* *

Binary names

* *

Any class name provided as a {@link String} parameter to methods in * ClassLoader must be a binary name as defined by * The Java™ Language Specification. * *

Examples of valid class names include: *

 *   "java.lang.String"
 *   "javax.swing.JSpinner$DefaultEditor"
 *   "java.security.KeyStore$Builder$FileBuilder$1"
 *   "java.net.URLClassLoader$3$1"
 * 
* * @see #resolveClass(Class) * @since 1.0 */ public abstract class ClassLoader { private static native void registerNatives(); static { registerNatives(); } // The parent class loader for delegation // Note: VM hardcoded the offset of this field, thus all new fields // must be added *after* it. private final ClassLoader parent; /** * Encapsulates the set of parallel capable loader types. */ private static class ParallelLoaders { private ParallelLoaders() {} // the set of parallel capable loader types private static final Set> loaderTypes = Collections.newSetFromMap( new WeakHashMap, Boolean>()); static { synchronized (loaderTypes) { loaderTypes.add(ClassLoader.class); } } /** * Registers the given class loader type as parallel capabale. * Returns {@code true} is successfully registered; {@code false} if * loader's super class is not registered. */ static boolean register(Class c) { synchronized (loaderTypes) { if (loaderTypes.contains(c.getSuperclass())) { // register the class loader as parallel capable // if and only if all of its super classes are. // Note: given current classloading sequence, if // the immediate super class is parallel capable, // all the super classes higher up must be too. loaderTypes.add(c); return true; } else { return false; } } } /** * Returns {@code true} if the given class loader type is * registered as parallel capable. */ static boolean isRegistered(Class c) { synchronized (loaderTypes) { return loaderTypes.contains(c); } } } // Maps class name to the corresponding lock object when the current // class loader is parallel capable. // Note: VM also uses this field to decide if the current class loader // is parallel capable and the appropriate lock object for class loading. private final ConcurrentHashMap parallelLockMap; // Hashtable that maps packages to certs private final Map package2certs; // Shared among all packages with unsigned classes private static final Certificate[] nocerts = new Certificate[0]; // The classes loaded by this class loader. The only purpose of this table // is to keep the classes from being GC'ed until the loader is GC'ed. private final Vector> classes = new Vector<>(); // The "default" domain. Set as the default ProtectionDomain on newly // created classes. private final ProtectionDomain defaultDomain = new ProtectionDomain(new CodeSource(null, (Certificate[]) null), null, this, null); // The initiating protection domains for all classes loaded by this loader private final Set domains; // Invoked by the VM to record every loaded class with this loader. void addClass(Class c) { classes.addElement(c); } // The packages defined in this class loader. Each package name is mapped // to its corresponding Package object. // @GuardedBy("itself") private final HashMap packages = new HashMap<>(); private static Void checkCreateClassLoader() { SecurityManager security = System.getSecurityManager(); if (security != null) { security.checkCreateClassLoader(); } return null; } private ClassLoader(Void unused, ClassLoader parent) { this.parent = parent; if (ParallelLoaders.isRegistered(this.getClass())) { parallelLockMap = new ConcurrentHashMap<>(); package2certs = new ConcurrentHashMap<>(); domains = Collections.synchronizedSet(new HashSet()); assertionLock = new Object(); } else { // no finer-grained lock; lock on the classloader instance parallelLockMap = null; package2certs = new Hashtable<>(); domains = new HashSet<>(); assertionLock = this; } } /** * Creates a new class loader using the specified parent class loader for * delegation. * *

If there is a security manager, its {@link * SecurityManager#checkCreateClassLoader() * checkCreateClassLoader} method is invoked. This may result in * a security exception.

* * @param parent * The parent class loader * * @throws SecurityException * If a security manager exists and its * checkCreateClassLoader method doesn't allow creation * of a new class loader. * * @since 1.2 */ protected ClassLoader(ClassLoader parent) { this(checkCreateClassLoader(), parent); } /** * Creates a new class loader using the ClassLoader returned by * the method {@link #getSystemClassLoader() * getSystemClassLoader()} as the parent class loader. * *

If there is a security manager, its {@link * SecurityManager#checkCreateClassLoader() * checkCreateClassLoader} method is invoked. This may result in * a security exception.

* * @throws SecurityException * If a security manager exists and its * checkCreateClassLoader method doesn't allow creation * of a new class loader. */ protected ClassLoader() { this(checkCreateClassLoader(), getSystemClassLoader()); } // -- Class -- /** * Loads the class with the specified binary name. * This method searches for classes in the same manner as the {@link * #loadClass(String, boolean)} method. It is invoked by the Java virtual * machine to resolve class references. Invoking this method is equivalent * to invoking {@link #loadClass(String, boolean) loadClass(name, * false)}. * * @param name * The binary name of the class * * @return The resulting Class object * * @throws ClassNotFoundException * If the class was not found */ public Class loadClass(String name) throws ClassNotFoundException { return loadClass(name, false); } /** * Loads the class with the specified binary name. The * default implementation of this method searches for classes in the * following order: * *
    * *
  1. Invoke {@link #findLoadedClass(String)} to check if the class * has already been loaded.

  2. * *
  3. Invoke the {@link #loadClass(String) loadClass} method * on the parent class loader. If the parent is null the class * loader built-in to the virtual machine is used, instead.

  4. * *
  5. Invoke the {@link #findClass(String)} method to find the * class.

  6. * *
* *

If the class was found using the above steps, and the * resolve flag is true, this method will then invoke the {@link * #resolveClass(Class)} method on the resulting Class object. * *

Subclasses of ClassLoader are encouraged to override {@link * #findClass(String)}, rather than this method.

* *

Unless overridden, this method synchronizes on the result of * {@link #getClassLoadingLock getClassLoadingLock} method * during the entire class loading process. * * @param name * The binary name of the class * * @param resolve * If true then resolve the class * * @return The resulting Class object * * @throws ClassNotFoundException * If the class could not be found */ protected Class loadClass(String name, boolean resolve) throws ClassNotFoundException { synchronized (getClassLoadingLock(name)) { // First, check if the class has already been loaded Class c = findLoadedClass(name); if (c == null) { long t0 = System.nanoTime(); try { if (parent != null) { c = parent.loadClass(name, false); } else { c = findBootstrapClassOrNull(name); } } catch (ClassNotFoundException e) { // ClassNotFoundException thrown if class not found // from the non-null parent class loader } if (c == null) { // If still not found, then invoke findClass in order // to find the class. long t1 = System.nanoTime(); c = findClass(name); // this is the defining class loader; record the stats sun.misc.PerfCounter.getParentDelegationTime().addTime(t1 - t0); sun.misc.PerfCounter.getFindClassTime().addElapsedTimeFrom(t1); sun.misc.PerfCounter.getFindClasses().increment(); } } if (resolve) { resolveClass(c); } return c; } } /** * Returns the lock object for class loading operations. * For backward compatibility, the default implementation of this method * behaves as follows. If this ClassLoader object is registered as * parallel capable, the method returns a dedicated object associated * with the specified class name. Otherwise, the method returns this * ClassLoader object. * * @param className * The name of the to-be-loaded class * * @return the lock for class loading operations * * @throws NullPointerException * If registered as parallel capable and className is null * * @see #loadClass(String, boolean) * * @since 1.7 */ protected Object getClassLoadingLock(String className) { Object lock = this; if (parallelLockMap != null) { Object newLock = new Object(); lock = parallelLockMap.putIfAbsent(className, newLock); if (lock == null) { lock = newLock; } } return lock; } // This method is invoked by the virtual machine to load a class. private Class loadClassInternal(String name) throws ClassNotFoundException { // For backward compatibility, explicitly lock on 'this' when // the current class loader is not parallel capable. if (parallelLockMap == null) { synchronized (this) { return loadClass(name); } } else { return loadClass(name); } } // Invoked by the VM after loading class with this loader. private void checkPackageAccess(Class cls, ProtectionDomain pd) { final SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager(); if (sm != null) { if (ReflectUtil.isNonPublicProxyClass(cls)) { for (Class intf: cls.getInterfaces()) { checkPackageAccess(intf, pd); } return; } final String name = cls.getName(); final int i = name.lastIndexOf('.'); if (i != -1) { AccessController.doPrivileged(new PrivilegedAction() { public Void run() { sm.checkPackageAccess(name.substring(0, i)); return null; } }, new AccessControlContext(new ProtectionDomain[] {pd})); } } domains.add(pd); } /** * Finds the class with the specified binary name. * This method should be overridden by class loader implementations that * follow the delegation model for loading classes, and will be invoked by * the {@link #loadClass loadClass} method after checking the * parent class loader for the requested class. The default implementation * throws a ClassNotFoundException. * * @param name * The binary name of the class * * @return The resulting Class object * * @throws ClassNotFoundException * If the class could not be found * * @since 1.2 */ protected Class findClass(String name) throws ClassNotFoundException { throw new ClassNotFoundException(name); } /** * Converts an array of bytes into an instance of class Class. * Before the Class can be used it must be resolved. This method * is deprecated in favor of the version that takes a binary name as its first argument, and is more secure. * * @param b * The bytes that make up the class data. The bytes in positions * off through off+len-1 should have the format * of a valid class file as defined by * The Java™ Virtual Machine Specification. * * @param off * The start offset in b of the class data * * @param len * The length of the class data * * @return The Class object that was created from the specified * class data * * @throws ClassFormatError * If the data did not contain a valid class * * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException * If either off or len is negative, or if * off+len is greater than b.length. * * @throws SecurityException * If an attempt is made to add this class to a package that * contains classes that were signed by a different set of * certificates than this class, or if an attempt is made * to define a class in a package with a fully-qualified name * that starts with "{@code java.}". * * @see #loadClass(String, boolean) * @see #resolveClass(Class) * * @deprecated Replaced by {@link #defineClass(String, byte[], int, int) * defineClass(String, byte[], int, int)} */ @Deprecated protected final Class defineClass(byte[] b, int off, int len) throws ClassFormatError { return defineClass(null, b, off, len, null); } /** * Converts an array of bytes into an instance of class Class. * Before the Class can be used it must be resolved. * *

This method assigns a default {@link java.security.ProtectionDomain * ProtectionDomain} to the newly defined class. The * ProtectionDomain is effectively granted the same set of * permissions returned when {@link * java.security.Policy#getPermissions(java.security.CodeSource) * Policy.getPolicy().getPermissions(new CodeSource(null, null))} * is invoked. The default domain is created on the first invocation of * {@link #defineClass(String, byte[], int, int) defineClass}, * and re-used on subsequent invocations. * *

To assign a specific ProtectionDomain to the class, use * the {@link #defineClass(String, byte[], int, int, * java.security.ProtectionDomain) defineClass} method that takes a * ProtectionDomain as one of its arguments.

* * @param name * The expected binary name of the class, or * null if not known * * @param b * The bytes that make up the class data. The bytes in positions * off through off+len-1 should have the format * of a valid class file as defined by * The Java™ Virtual Machine Specification. * * @param off * The start offset in b of the class data * * @param len * The length of the class data * * @return The Class object that was created from the specified * class data. * * @throws ClassFormatError * If the data did not contain a valid class * * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException * If either off or len is negative, or if * off+len is greater than b.length. * * @throws SecurityException * If an attempt is made to add this class to a package that * contains classes that were signed by a different set of * certificates than this class (which is unsigned), or if * name begins with "java.". * * @see #loadClass(String, boolean) * @see #resolveClass(Class) * @see java.security.CodeSource * @see java.security.SecureClassLoader * * @since 1.1 */ protected final Class defineClass(String name, byte[] b, int off, int len) throws ClassFormatError { return defineClass(name, b, off, len, null); } /* Determine protection domain, and check that: - not define java.* class, - signer of this class matches signers for the rest of the classes in package. */ private ProtectionDomain preDefineClass(String name, ProtectionDomain pd) { if (!checkName(name)) throw new NoClassDefFoundError("IllegalName: " + name); // Note: Checking logic in java.lang.invoke.MemberName.checkForTypeAlias // relies on the fact that spoofing is impossible if a class has a name // of the form "java.*" if ((name != null) && name.startsWith("java.")) { throw new SecurityException ("Prohibited package name: " + name.substring(0, name.lastIndexOf('.'))); } if (pd == null) { pd = defaultDomain; } if (name != null) checkCerts(name, pd.getCodeSource()); return pd; } private String defineClassSourceLocation(ProtectionDomain pd) { CodeSource cs = pd.getCodeSource(); String source = null; if (cs != null && cs.getLocation() != null) { source = cs.getLocation().toString(); } return source; } private void postDefineClass(Class c, ProtectionDomain pd) { if (pd.getCodeSource() != null) { Certificate certs[] = pd.getCodeSource().getCertificates(); if (certs != null) setSigners(c, certs); } } /** * Converts an array of bytes into an instance of class Class, * with an optional ProtectionDomain. If the domain is * null, then a default domain will be assigned to the class as * specified in the documentation for {@link #defineClass(String, byte[], * int, int)}. Before the class can be used it must be resolved. * *

The first class defined in a package determines the exact set of * certificates that all subsequent classes defined in that package must * contain. The set of certificates for a class is obtained from the * {@link java.security.CodeSource CodeSource} within the * ProtectionDomain of the class. Any classes added to that * package must contain the same set of certificates or a * SecurityException will be thrown. Note that if * name is null, this check is not performed. * You should always pass in the binary name of the * class you are defining as well as the bytes. This ensures that the * class you are defining is indeed the class you think it is. * *

The specified name cannot begin with "java.", since * all classes in the "java.* packages can only be defined by the * bootstrap class loader. If name is not null, it * must be equal to the binary name of the class * specified by the byte array "b", otherwise a {@link * NoClassDefFoundError NoClassDefFoundError} will be thrown.

* * @param name * The expected binary name of the class, or * null if not known * * @param b * The bytes that make up the class data. The bytes in positions * off through off+len-1 should have the format * of a valid class file as defined by * The Java™ Virtual Machine Specification. * * @param off * The start offset in b of the class data * * @param len * The length of the class data * * @param protectionDomain * The ProtectionDomain of the class * * @return The Class object created from the data, * and optional ProtectionDomain. * * @throws ClassFormatError * If the data did not contain a valid class * * @throws NoClassDefFoundError * If name is not equal to the binary * name of the class specified by b * * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException * If either off or len is negative, or if * off+len is greater than b.length. * * @throws SecurityException * If an attempt is made to add this class to a package that * contains classes that were signed by a different set of * certificates than this class, or if name begins with * "java.". */ protected final Class defineClass(String name, byte[] b, int off, int len, ProtectionDomain protectionDomain) throws ClassFormatError { protectionDomain = preDefineClass(name, protectionDomain); String source = defineClassSourceLocation(protectionDomain); Class c = defineClass1(name, b, off, len, protectionDomain, source); postDefineClass(c, protectionDomain); return c; } /** * Converts a {@link java.nio.ByteBuffer ByteBuffer} * into an instance of class Class, * with an optional ProtectionDomain. If the domain is * null, then a default domain will be assigned to the class as * specified in the documentation for {@link #defineClass(String, byte[], * int, int)}. Before the class can be used it must be resolved. * *

The rules about the first class defined in a package determining the * set of certificates for the package, and the restrictions on class names * are identical to those specified in the documentation for {@link * #defineClass(String, byte[], int, int, ProtectionDomain)}. * *

An invocation of this method of the form * cl.defineClass(name, * bBuffer, pd) yields exactly the same * result as the statements * *

* ...
* byte[] temp = new byte[bBuffer.{@link * java.nio.ByteBuffer#remaining remaining}()];
* bBuffer.{@link java.nio.ByteBuffer#get(byte[]) * get}(temp);
* return {@link #defineClass(String, byte[], int, int, ProtectionDomain) * cl.defineClass}(name, temp, 0, * temp.length, pd);
*

* * @param name * The expected binary name. of the class, or * null if not known * * @param b * The bytes that make up the class data. The bytes from positions * b.position() through b.position() + b.limit() -1 * should have the format of a valid class file as defined by * The Java™ Virtual Machine Specification. * * @param protectionDomain * The ProtectionDomain of the class, or null. * * @return The Class object created from the data, * and optional ProtectionDomain. * * @throws ClassFormatError * If the data did not contain a valid class. * * @throws NoClassDefFoundError * If name is not equal to the binary * name of the class specified by b * * @throws SecurityException * If an attempt is made to add this class to a package that * contains classes that were signed by a different set of * certificates than this class, or if name begins with * "java.". * * @see #defineClass(String, byte[], int, int, ProtectionDomain) * * @since 1.5 */ protected final Class defineClass(String name, java.nio.ByteBuffer b, ProtectionDomain protectionDomain) throws ClassFormatError { int len = b.remaining(); // Use byte[] if not a direct ByteBufer: if (!b.isDirect()) { if (b.hasArray()) { return defineClass(name, b.array(), b.position() + b.arrayOffset(), len, protectionDomain); } else { // no array, or read-only array byte[] tb = new byte[len]; b.get(tb); // get bytes out of byte buffer. return defineClass(name, tb, 0, len, protectionDomain); } } protectionDomain = preDefineClass(name, protectionDomain); String source = defineClassSourceLocation(protectionDomain); Class c = defineClass2(name, b, b.position(), len, protectionDomain, source); postDefineClass(c, protectionDomain); return c; } private native Class defineClass0(String name, byte[] b, int off, int len, ProtectionDomain pd); private native Class defineClass1(String name, byte[] b, int off, int len, ProtectionDomain pd, String source); private native Class defineClass2(String name, java.nio.ByteBuffer b, int off, int len, ProtectionDomain pd, String source); // true if the name is null or has the potential to be a valid binary name private boolean checkName(String name) { if ((name == null) || (name.length() == 0)) return true; if ((name.indexOf('/') != -1) || (!VM.allowArraySyntax() && (name.charAt(0) == '['))) return false; return true; } private void checkCerts(String name, CodeSource cs) { int i = name.lastIndexOf('.'); String pname = (i == -1) ? "" : name.substring(0, i); Certificate[] certs = null; if (cs != null) { certs = cs.getCertificates(); } Certificate[] pcerts = null; if (parallelLockMap == null) { synchronized (this) { pcerts = package2certs.get(pname); if (pcerts == null) { package2certs.put(pname, (certs == null? nocerts:certs)); } } } else { pcerts = ((ConcurrentHashMap)package2certs). putIfAbsent(pname, (certs == null? nocerts:certs)); } if (pcerts != null && !compareCerts(pcerts, certs)) { throw new SecurityException("class \""+ name + "\"'s signer information does not match signer information of other classes in the same package"); } } /** * check to make sure the certs for the new class (certs) are the same as * the certs for the first class inserted in the package (pcerts) */ private boolean compareCerts(Certificate[] pcerts, Certificate[] certs) { // certs can be null, indicating no certs. if ((certs == null) || (certs.length == 0)) { return pcerts.length == 0; } // the length must be the same at this point if (certs.length != pcerts.length) return false; // go through and make sure all the certs in one array // are in the other and vice-versa. boolean match; for (int i = 0; i < certs.length; i++) { match = false; for (int j = 0; j < pcerts.length; j++) { if (certs[i].equals(pcerts[j])) { match = true; break; } } if (!match) return false; } // now do the same for pcerts for (int i = 0; i < pcerts.length; i++) { match = false; for (int j = 0; j < certs.length; j++) { if (pcerts[i].equals(certs[j])) { match = true; break; } } if (!match) return false; } return true; } /** * Links the specified class. This (misleadingly named) method may be * used by a class loader to link a class. If the class c has * already been linked, then this method simply returns. Otherwise, the * class is linked as described in the "Execution" chapter of * The Java™ Language Specification. * * @param c * The class to link * * @throws NullPointerException * If c is null. * * @see #defineClass(String, byte[], int, int) */ protected final void resolveClass(Class c) { resolveClass0(c); } private native void resolveClass0(Class c); /** * Finds a class with the specified binary name, * loading it if necessary. * *

This method loads the class through the system class loader (see * {@link #getSystemClassLoader()}). The Class object returned * might have more than one ClassLoader associated with it. * Subclasses of ClassLoader need not usually invoke this method, * because most class loaders need to override just {@link * #findClass(String)}.

* * @param name * The binary name of the class * * @return The Class object for the specified name * * @throws ClassNotFoundException * If the class could not be found * * @see #ClassLoader(ClassLoader) * @see #getParent() */ protected final Class findSystemClass(String name) throws ClassNotFoundException { ClassLoader system = getSystemClassLoader(); if (system == null) { if (!checkName(name)) throw new ClassNotFoundException(name); Class cls = findBootstrapClass(name); if (cls == null) { throw new ClassNotFoundException(name); } return cls; } return system.loadClass(name); } /** * Returns a class loaded by the bootstrap class loader; * or return null if not found. */ private Class findBootstrapClassOrNull(String name) { if (!checkName(name)) return null; return findBootstrapClass(name); } // return null if not found private native Class findBootstrapClass(String name); /** * Returns the class with the given binary name if this * loader has been recorded by the Java virtual machine as an initiating * loader of a class with that binary name. Otherwise * null is returned. * * @param name * The binary name of the class * * @return The Class object, or null if the class has * not been loaded * * @since 1.1 */ protected final Class findLoadedClass(String name) { if (!checkName(name)) return null; return findLoadedClass0(name); } private native final Class findLoadedClass0(String name); /** * Sets the signers of a class. This should be invoked after defining a * class. * * @param c * The Class object * * @param signers * The signers for the class * * @since 1.1 */ protected final void setSigners(Class c, Object[] signers) { c.setSigners(signers); } // -- Resource -- /** * Finds the resource with the given name. A resource is some data * (images, audio, text, etc) that can be accessed by class code in a way * that is independent of the location of the code. * *

The name of a resource is a '/'-separated path name that * identifies the resource. * *

This method will first search the parent class loader for the * resource; if the parent is null the path of the class loader * built-in to the virtual machine is searched. That failing, this method * will invoke {@link #findResource(String)} to find the resource.

* * @apiNote When overriding this method it is recommended that an * implementation ensures that any delegation is consistent with the {@link * #getResources(java.lang.String) getResources(String)} method. * * @param name * The resource name * * @return A URL object for reading the resource, or * null if the resource could not be found or the invoker * doesn't have adequate privileges to get the resource. * * @since 1.1 */ public URL getResource(String name) { URL url; if (parent != null) { url = parent.getResource(name); } else { url = getBootstrapResource(name); } if (url == null) { url = findResource(name); } return url; } /** * Finds all the resources with the given name. A resource is some data * (images, audio, text, etc) that can be accessed by class code in a way * that is independent of the location of the code. * *

The name of a resource is a /-separated path name that * identifies the resource. * *

The search order is described in the documentation for {@link * #getResource(String)}.

* * @apiNote When overriding this method it is recommended that an * implementation ensures that any delegation is consistent with the {@link * #getResource(java.lang.String) getResource(String)} method. This should * ensure that the first element returned by the Enumeration's * {@code nextElement} method is the same resource that the * {@code getResource(String)} method would return. * * @param name * The resource name * * @return An enumeration of {@link java.net.URL URL} objects for * the resource. If no resources could be found, the enumeration * will be empty. Resources that the class loader doesn't have * access to will not be in the enumeration. * * @throws IOException * If I/O errors occur * * @see #findResources(String) * * @since 1.2 */ public Enumeration getResources(String name) throws IOException { @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") Enumeration[] tmp = (Enumeration[]) new Enumeration[2]; if (parent != null) { tmp[0] = parent.getResources(name); } else { tmp[0] = getBootstrapResources(name); } tmp[1] = findResources(name); return new CompoundEnumeration<>(tmp); } /** * Finds the resource with the given name. Class loader implementations * should override this method to specify where to find resources. * * @param name * The resource name * * @return A URL object for reading the resource, or * null if the resource could not be found * * @since 1.2 */ protected URL findResource(String name) { return null; } /** * Returns an enumeration of {@link java.net.URL URL} objects * representing all the resources with the given name. Class loader * implementations should override this method to specify where to load * resources from. * * @param name * The resource name * * @return An enumeration of {@link java.net.URL URL} objects for * the resources * * @throws IOException * If I/O errors occur * * @since 1.2 */ protected Enumeration findResources(String name) throws IOException { return java.util.Collections.emptyEnumeration(); } /** * Registers the caller as parallel capable. * The registration succeeds if and only if all of the following * conditions are met: *
    *
  1. no instance of the caller has been created
  2. *
  3. all of the super classes (except class Object) of the caller are * registered as parallel capable
  4. *
*

Note that once a class loader is registered as parallel capable, there * is no way to change it back.

* * @return true if the caller is successfully registered as * parallel capable and false if otherwise. * * @since 1.7 */ @CallerSensitive protected static boolean registerAsParallelCapable() { Class callerClass = Reflection.getCallerClass().asSubclass(ClassLoader.class); return ParallelLoaders.register(callerClass); } /** * Find a resource of the specified name from the search path used to load * classes. This method locates the resource through the system class * loader (see {@link #getSystemClassLoader()}). * * @param name * The resource name * * @return A {@link java.net.URL URL} object for reading the * resource, or null if the resource could not be found * * @since 1.1 */ public static URL getSystemResource(String name) { ClassLoader system = getSystemClassLoader(); if (system == null) { return getBootstrapResource(name); } return system.getResource(name); } /** * Finds all resources of the specified name from the search path used to * load classes. The resources thus found are returned as an * {@link java.util.Enumeration Enumeration} of {@link * java.net.URL URL} objects. * *

The search order is described in the documentation for {@link * #getSystemResource(String)}.

* * @param name * The resource name * * @return An enumeration of resource {@link java.net.URL URL} * objects * * @throws IOException * If I/O errors occur * @since 1.2 */ public static Enumeration getSystemResources(String name) throws IOException { ClassLoader system = getSystemClassLoader(); if (system == null) { return getBootstrapResources(name); } return system.getResources(name); } /** * Find resources from the VM's built-in classloader. */ private static URL getBootstrapResource(String name) { URLClassPath ucp = getBootstrapClassPath(); Resource res = ucp.getResource(name); return res != null ? res.getURL() : null; } /** * Find resources from the VM's built-in classloader. */ private static Enumeration getBootstrapResources(String name) throws IOException { final Enumeration e = getBootstrapClassPath().getResources(name); return new Enumeration () { public URL nextElement() { return e.nextElement().getURL(); } public boolean hasMoreElements() { return e.hasMoreElements(); } }; } // Returns the URLClassPath that is used for finding system resources. static URLClassPath getBootstrapClassPath() { return sun.misc.Launcher.getBootstrapClassPath(); } /** * Returns an input stream for reading the specified resource. * *

The search order is described in the documentation for {@link * #getResource(String)}.

* * @param name * The resource name * * @return An input stream for reading the resource, or null * if the resource could not be found * * @since 1.1 */ public InputStream getResourceAsStream(String name) { URL url = getResource(name); try { return url != null ? url.openStream() : null; } catch (IOException e) { return null; } } /** * Open for reading, a resource of the specified name from the search path * used to load classes. This method locates the resource through the * system class loader (see {@link #getSystemClassLoader()}). * * @param name * The resource name * * @return An input stream for reading the resource, or null * if the resource could not be found * * @since 1.1 */ public static InputStream getSystemResourceAsStream(String name) { URL url = getSystemResource(name); try { return url != null ? url.openStream() : null; } catch (IOException e) { return null; } } // -- Hierarchy -- /** * Returns the parent class loader for delegation. Some implementations may * use null to represent the bootstrap class loader. This method * will return null in such implementations if this class loader's * parent is the bootstrap class loader. * *

If a security manager is present, and the invoker's class loader is * not null and is not an ancestor of this class loader, then this * method invokes the security manager's {@link * SecurityManager#checkPermission(java.security.Permission) * checkPermission} method with a {@link * RuntimePermission#RuntimePermission(String) * RuntimePermission("getClassLoader")} permission to verify * access to the parent class loader is permitted. If not, a * SecurityException will be thrown.

* * @return The parent ClassLoader * * @throws SecurityException * If a security manager exists and its checkPermission * method doesn't allow access to this class loader's parent class * loader. * * @since 1.2 */ @CallerSensitive public final ClassLoader getParent() { if (parent == null) return null; SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager(); if (sm != null) { // Check access to the parent class loader // If the caller's class loader is same as this class loader, // permission check is performed. checkClassLoaderPermission(parent, Reflection.getCallerClass()); } return parent; } /** * Returns the system class loader for delegation. This is the default * delegation parent for new ClassLoader instances, and is * typically the class loader used to start the application. * *

This method is first invoked early in the runtime's startup * sequence, at which point it creates the system class loader and sets it * as the context class loader of the invoking Thread. * *

The default system class loader is an implementation-dependent * instance of this class. * *

If the system property "java.system.class.loader" is defined * when this method is first invoked then the value of that property is * taken to be the name of a class that will be returned as the system * class loader. The class is loaded using the default system class loader * and must define a public constructor that takes a single parameter of * type ClassLoader which is used as the delegation parent. An * instance is then created using this constructor with the default system * class loader as the parameter. The resulting class loader is defined * to be the system class loader. * *

If a security manager is present, and the invoker's class loader is * not null and the invoker's class loader is not the same as or * an ancestor of the system class loader, then this method invokes the * security manager's {@link * SecurityManager#checkPermission(java.security.Permission) * checkPermission} method with a {@link * RuntimePermission#RuntimePermission(String) * RuntimePermission("getClassLoader")} permission to verify * access to the system class loader. If not, a * SecurityException will be thrown.

* * @return The system ClassLoader for delegation, or * null if none * * @throws SecurityException * If a security manager exists and its checkPermission * method doesn't allow access to the system class loader. * * @throws IllegalStateException * If invoked recursively during the construction of the class * loader specified by the "java.system.class.loader" * property. * * @throws Error * If the system property "java.system.class.loader" * is defined but the named class could not be loaded, the * provider class does not define the required constructor, or an * exception is thrown by that constructor when it is invoked. The * underlying cause of the error can be retrieved via the * {@link Throwable#getCause()} method. * * @revised 1.4 */ @CallerSensitive public static ClassLoader getSystemClassLoader() { initSystemClassLoader(); if (scl == null) { return null; } SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager(); if (sm != null) { checkClassLoaderPermission(scl, Reflection.getCallerClass()); } return scl; } private static synchronized void initSystemClassLoader() { if (!sclSet) { if (scl != null) throw new IllegalStateException("recursive invocation"); sun.misc.Launcher l = sun.misc.Launcher.getLauncher(); if (l != null) { Throwable oops = null; scl = l.getClassLoader(); try { scl = AccessController.doPrivileged( new SystemClassLoaderAction(scl)); } catch (PrivilegedActionException pae) { oops = pae.getCause(); if (oops instanceof InvocationTargetException) { oops = oops.getCause(); } } if (oops != null) { if (oops instanceof Error) { throw (Error) oops; } else { // wrap the exception throw new Error(oops); } } } sclSet = true; } } // Returns true if the specified class loader can be found in this class // loader's delegation chain. boolean isAncestor(ClassLoader cl) { ClassLoader acl = this; do { acl = acl.parent; if (cl == acl) { return true; } } while (acl != null); return false; } // Tests if class loader access requires "getClassLoader" permission // check. A class loader 'from' can access class loader 'to' if // class loader 'from' is same as class loader 'to' or an ancestor // of 'to'. The class loader in a system domain can access // any class loader. private static boolean needsClassLoaderPermissionCheck(ClassLoader from, ClassLoader to) { if (from == to) return false; if (from == null) return false; return !to.isAncestor(from); } // Returns the class's class loader, or null if none. static ClassLoader getClassLoader(Class caller) { // This can be null if the VM is requesting it if (caller == null) { return null; } // Circumvent security check since this is package-private return caller.getClassLoader0(); } /* * Checks RuntimePermission("getClassLoader") permission * if caller's class loader is not null and caller's class loader * is not the same as or an ancestor of the given cl argument. */ static void checkClassLoaderPermission(ClassLoader cl, Class caller) { SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager(); if (sm != null) { // caller can be null if the VM is requesting it ClassLoader ccl = getClassLoader(caller); if (needsClassLoaderPermissionCheck(ccl, cl)) { sm.checkPermission(SecurityConstants.GET_CLASSLOADER_PERMISSION); } } } // The class loader for the system // @GuardedBy("ClassLoader.class") private static ClassLoader scl; // Set to true once the system class loader has been set // @GuardedBy("ClassLoader.class") private static boolean sclSet; // -- Package -- /** * Defines a package by name in this ClassLoader. This allows * class loaders to define the packages for their classes. Packages must * be created before the class is defined, and package names must be * unique within a class loader and cannot be redefined or changed once * created. * * @param name * The package name * * @param specTitle * The specification title * * @param specVersion * The specification version * * @param specVendor * The specification vendor * * @param implTitle * The implementation title * * @param implVersion * The implementation version * * @param implVendor * The implementation vendor * * @param sealBase * If not null, then this package is sealed with * respect to the given code source {@link java.net.URL * URL} object. Otherwise, the package is not sealed. * * @return The newly defined Package object * * @throws IllegalArgumentException * If package name duplicates an existing package either in this * class loader or one of its ancestors * * @since 1.2 */ protected Package definePackage(String name, String specTitle, String specVersion, String specVendor, String implTitle, String implVersion, String implVendor, URL sealBase) throws IllegalArgumentException { synchronized (packages) { Package pkg = getPackage(name); if (pkg != null) { throw new IllegalArgumentException(name); } pkg = new Package(name, specTitle, specVersion, specVendor, implTitle, implVersion, implVendor, sealBase, this); packages.put(name, pkg); return pkg; } } /** * Returns a Package that has been defined by this class loader * or any of its ancestors. * * @param name * The package name * * @return The Package corresponding to the given name, or * null if not found * * @since 1.2 */ protected Package getPackage(String name) { Package pkg; synchronized (packages) { pkg = packages.get(name); } if (pkg == null) { if (parent != null) { pkg = parent.getPackage(name); } else { pkg = Package.getSystemPackage(name); } if (pkg != null) { synchronized (packages) { Package pkg2 = packages.get(name); if (pkg2 == null) { packages.put(name, pkg); } else { pkg = pkg2; } } } } return pkg; } /** * Returns all of the Packages defined by this class loader and * its ancestors. * * @return The array of Package objects defined by this * ClassLoader * * @since 1.2 */ protected Package[] getPackages() { Map map; synchronized (packages) { map = new HashMap<>(packages); } Package[] pkgs; if (parent != null) { pkgs = parent.getPackages(); } else { pkgs = Package.getSystemPackages(); } if (pkgs != null) { for (int i = 0; i < pkgs.length; i++) { String pkgName = pkgs[i].getName(); if (map.get(pkgName) == null) { map.put(pkgName, pkgs[i]); } } } return map.values().toArray(new Package[map.size()]); } // -- Native library access -- /** * Returns the absolute path name of a native library. The VM invokes this * method to locate the native libraries that belong to classes loaded with * this class loader. If this method returns null, the VM * searches the library along the path specified as the * "java.library.path" property. * * @param libname * The library name * * @return The absolute path of the native library * * @see System#loadLibrary(String) * @see System#mapLibraryName(String) * * @since 1.2 */ protected String findLibrary(String libname) { return null; } /** * The inner class NativeLibrary denotes a loaded native library instance. * Every classloader contains a vector of loaded native libraries in the * private field nativeLibraries. The native libraries loaded * into the system are entered into the systemNativeLibraries * vector. * *

Every native library requires a particular version of JNI. This is * denoted by the private jniVersion field. This field is set by * the VM when it loads the library, and used by the VM to pass the correct * version of JNI to the native methods.

* * @see ClassLoader * @since 1.2 */ static class NativeLibrary { // opaque handle to native library, used in native code. long handle; // the version of JNI environment the native library requires. private int jniVersion; // the class from which the library is loaded, also indicates // the loader this native library belongs. private final Class fromClass; // the canonicalized name of the native library. // or static library name String name; // Indicates if the native library is linked into the VM boolean isBuiltin; // Indicates if the native library is loaded boolean loaded; native void load(String name, boolean isBuiltin); native long find(String name); native void unload(String name, boolean isBuiltin); public NativeLibrary(Class fromClass, String name, boolean isBuiltin) { this.name = name; this.fromClass = fromClass; this.isBuiltin = isBuiltin; } protected void finalize() { synchronized (loadedLibraryNames) { if (fromClass.getClassLoader() != null && loaded) { /* remove the native library name */ int size = loadedLibraryNames.size(); for (int i = 0; i < size; i++) { if (name.equals(loadedLibraryNames.elementAt(i))) { loadedLibraryNames.removeElementAt(i); break; } } /* unload the library. */ ClassLoader.nativeLibraryContext.push(this); try { unload(name, isBuiltin); } finally { ClassLoader.nativeLibraryContext.pop(); } } } } // Invoked in the VM to determine the context class in // JNI_Load/JNI_Unload static Class getFromClass() { return ClassLoader.nativeLibraryContext.peek().fromClass; } } // All native library names we've loaded. private static Vector loadedLibraryNames = new Vector<>(); // Native libraries belonging to system classes. private static Vector systemNativeLibraries = new Vector<>(); // Native libraries associated with the class loader. private Vector nativeLibraries = new Vector<>(); // native libraries being loaded/unloaded. private static Stack nativeLibraryContext = new Stack<>(); // The paths searched for libraries private static String usr_paths[]; private static String sys_paths[]; private static String[] initializePath(String propname) { String ldpath = System.getProperty(propname, ""); String ps = File.pathSeparator; int ldlen = ldpath.length(); int i, j, n; // Count the separators in the path i = ldpath.indexOf(ps); n = 0; while (i >= 0) { n++; i = ldpath.indexOf(ps, i + 1); } // allocate the array of paths - n :'s = n + 1 path elements String[] paths = new String[n + 1]; // Fill the array with paths from the ldpath n = i = 0; j = ldpath.indexOf(ps); while (j >= 0) { if (j - i > 0) { paths[n++] = ldpath.substring(i, j); } else if (j - i == 0) { paths[n++] = "."; } i = j + 1; j = ldpath.indexOf(ps, i); } paths[n] = ldpath.substring(i, ldlen); return paths; } // Invoked in the java.lang.Runtime class to implement load and loadLibrary. static void loadLibrary(Class fromClass, String name, boolean isAbsolute) { ClassLoader loader = (fromClass == null) ? null : fromClass.getClassLoader(); if (sys_paths == null) { usr_paths = initializePath("java.library.path"); sys_paths = initializePath("sun.boot.library.path"); } if (isAbsolute) { if (loadLibrary0(fromClass, new File(name))) { return; } throw new UnsatisfiedLinkError("Can't load library: " + name); } if (loader != null) { String libfilename = loader.findLibrary(name); if (libfilename != null) { File libfile = new File(libfilename); if (!libfile.isAbsolute()) { throw new UnsatisfiedLinkError( "ClassLoader.findLibrary failed to return an absolute path: " + libfilename); } if (loadLibrary0(fromClass, libfile)) { return; } throw new UnsatisfiedLinkError("Can't load " + libfilename); } } for (int i = 0 ; i < sys_paths.length ; i++) { File libfile = new File(sys_paths[i], System.mapLibraryName(name)); if (loadLibrary0(fromClass, libfile)) { return; } libfile = ClassLoaderHelper.mapAlternativeName(libfile); if (libfile != null && loadLibrary0(fromClass, libfile)) { return; } } if (loader != null) { for (int i = 0 ; i < usr_paths.length ; i++) { File libfile = new File(usr_paths[i], System.mapLibraryName(name)); if (loadLibrary0(fromClass, libfile)) { return; } libfile = ClassLoaderHelper.mapAlternativeName(libfile); if (libfile != null && loadLibrary0(fromClass, libfile)) { return; } } } // Oops, it failed throw new UnsatisfiedLinkError("no " + name + " in java.library.path"); } private static native String findBuiltinLib(String name); private static boolean loadLibrary0(Class fromClass, final File file) { // Check to see if we're attempting to access a static library String name = findBuiltinLib(file.getName()); boolean isBuiltin = (name != null); if (!isBuiltin) { boolean exists = AccessController.doPrivileged( new PrivilegedAction() { public Object run() { return file.exists() ? Boolean.TRUE : null; }}) != null; if (!exists) { return false; } try { name = file.getCanonicalPath(); } catch (IOException e) { return false; } } ClassLoader loader = (fromClass == null) ? null : fromClass.getClassLoader(); Vector libs = loader != null ? loader.nativeLibraries : systemNativeLibraries; synchronized (libs) { int size = libs.size(); for (int i = 0; i < size; i++) { NativeLibrary lib = libs.elementAt(i); if (name.equals(lib.name)) { return true; } } synchronized (loadedLibraryNames) { if (loadedLibraryNames.contains(name)) { throw new UnsatisfiedLinkError ("Native Library " + name + " already loaded in another classloader"); } /* If the library is being loaded (must be by the same thread, * because Runtime.load and Runtime.loadLibrary are * synchronous). The reason is can occur is that the JNI_OnLoad * function can cause another loadLibrary invocation. * * Thus we can use a static stack to hold the list of libraries * we are loading. * * If there is a pending load operation for the library, we * immediately return success; otherwise, we raise * UnsatisfiedLinkError. */ int n = nativeLibraryContext.size(); for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) { NativeLibrary lib = nativeLibraryContext.elementAt(i); if (name.equals(lib.name)) { if (loader == lib.fromClass.getClassLoader()) { return true; } else { throw new UnsatisfiedLinkError ("Native Library " + name + " is being loaded in another classloader"); } } } NativeLibrary lib = new NativeLibrary(fromClass, name, isBuiltin); nativeLibraryContext.push(lib); try { lib.load(name, isBuiltin); } finally { nativeLibraryContext.pop(); } if (lib.loaded) { loadedLibraryNames.addElement(name); libs.addElement(lib); return true; } return false; } } } // Invoked in the VM class linking code. static long findNative(ClassLoader loader, String name) { Vector libs = loader != null ? loader.nativeLibraries : systemNativeLibraries; synchronized (libs) { int size = libs.size(); for (int i = 0; i < size; i++) { NativeLibrary lib = libs.elementAt(i); long entry = lib.find(name); if (entry != 0) return entry; } } return 0; } // -- Assertion management -- final Object assertionLock; // The default toggle for assertion checking. // @GuardedBy("assertionLock") private boolean defaultAssertionStatus = false; // Maps String packageName to Boolean package default assertion status Note // that the default package is placed under a null map key. If this field // is null then we are delegating assertion status queries to the VM, i.e., // none of this ClassLoader's assertion status modification methods have // been invoked. // @GuardedBy("assertionLock") private Map packageAssertionStatus = null; // Maps String fullyQualifiedClassName to Boolean assertionStatus If this // field is null then we are delegating assertion status queries to the VM, // i.e., none of this ClassLoader's assertion status modification methods // have been invoked. // @GuardedBy("assertionLock") Map classAssertionStatus = null; /** * Sets the default assertion status for this class loader. This setting * determines whether classes loaded by this class loader and initialized * in the future will have assertions enabled or disabled by default. * This setting may be overridden on a per-package or per-class basis by * invoking {@link #setPackageAssertionStatus(String, boolean)} or {@link * #setClassAssertionStatus(String, boolean)}. * * @param enabled * true if classes loaded by this class loader will * henceforth have assertions enabled by default, false * if they will have assertions disabled by default. * * @since 1.4 */ public void setDefaultAssertionStatus(boolean enabled) { synchronized (assertionLock) { if (classAssertionStatus == null) initializeJavaAssertionMaps(); defaultAssertionStatus = enabled; } } /** * Sets the package default assertion status for the named package. The * package default assertion status determines the assertion status for * classes initialized in the future that belong to the named package or * any of its "subpackages". * *

A subpackage of a package named p is any package whose name begins * with "p.". For example, javax.swing.text is a * subpackage of javax.swing, and both java.util and * java.lang.reflect are subpackages of java. * *

In the event that multiple package defaults apply to a given class, * the package default pertaining to the most specific package takes * precedence over the others. For example, if javax.lang and * javax.lang.reflect both have package defaults associated with * them, the latter package default applies to classes in * javax.lang.reflect. * *

Package defaults take precedence over the class loader's default * assertion status, and may be overridden on a per-class basis by invoking * {@link #setClassAssertionStatus(String, boolean)}.

* * @param packageName * The name of the package whose package default assertion status * is to be set. A null value indicates the unnamed * package that is "current" * (see section 7.4.2 of * The Java™ Language Specification.) * * @param enabled * true if classes loaded by this classloader and * belonging to the named package or any of its subpackages will * have assertions enabled by default, false if they will * have assertions disabled by default. * * @since 1.4 */ public void setPackageAssertionStatus(String packageName, boolean enabled) { synchronized (assertionLock) { if (packageAssertionStatus == null) initializeJavaAssertionMaps(); packageAssertionStatus.put(packageName, enabled); } } /** * Sets the desired assertion status for the named top-level class in this * class loader and any nested classes contained therein. This setting * takes precedence over the class loader's default assertion status, and * over any applicable per-package default. This method has no effect if * the named class has already been initialized. (Once a class is * initialized, its assertion status cannot change.) * *

If the named class is not a top-level class, this invocation will * have no effect on the actual assertion status of any class.

* * @param className * The fully qualified class name of the top-level class whose * assertion status is to be set. * * @param enabled * true if the named class is to have assertions * enabled when (and if) it is initialized, false if the * class is to have assertions disabled. * * @since 1.4 */ public void setClassAssertionStatus(String className, boolean enabled) { synchronized (assertionLock) { if (classAssertionStatus == null) initializeJavaAssertionMaps(); classAssertionStatus.put(className, enabled); } } /** * Sets the default assertion status for this class loader to * false and discards any package defaults or class assertion * status settings associated with the class loader. This method is * provided so that class loaders can be made to ignore any command line or * persistent assertion status settings and "start with a clean slate." * * @since 1.4 */ public void clearAssertionStatus() { /* * Whether or not "Java assertion maps" are initialized, set * them to empty maps, effectively ignoring any present settings. */ synchronized (assertionLock) { classAssertionStatus = new HashMap<>(); packageAssertionStatus = new HashMap<>(); defaultAssertionStatus = false; } } /** * Returns the assertion status that would be assigned to the specified * class if it were to be initialized at the time this method is invoked. * If the named class has had its assertion status set, the most recent * setting will be returned; otherwise, if any package default assertion * status pertains to this class, the most recent setting for the most * specific pertinent package default assertion status is returned; * otherwise, this class loader's default assertion status is returned. *

* * @param className * The fully qualified class name of the class whose desired * assertion status is being queried. * * @return The desired assertion status of the specified class. * * @see #setClassAssertionStatus(String, boolean) * @see #setPackageAssertionStatus(String, boolean) * @see #setDefaultAssertionStatus(boolean) * * @since 1.4 */ boolean desiredAssertionStatus(String className) { synchronized (assertionLock) { // assert classAssertionStatus != null; // assert packageAssertionStatus != null; // Check for a class entry Boolean result = classAssertionStatus.get(className); if (result != null) return result.booleanValue(); // Check for most specific package entry int dotIndex = className.lastIndexOf("."); if (dotIndex < 0) { // default package result = packageAssertionStatus.get(null); if (result != null) return result.booleanValue(); } while(dotIndex > 0) { className = className.substring(0, dotIndex); result = packageAssertionStatus.get(className); if (result != null) return result.booleanValue(); dotIndex = className.lastIndexOf(".", dotIndex-1); } // Return the classloader default return defaultAssertionStatus; } } // Set up the assertions with information provided by the VM. // Note: Should only be called inside a synchronized block private void initializeJavaAssertionMaps() { // assert Thread.holdsLock(assertionLock); classAssertionStatus = new HashMap<>(); packageAssertionStatus = new HashMap<>(); AssertionStatusDirectives directives = retrieveDirectives(); for(int i = 0; i < directives.classes.length; i++) classAssertionStatus.put(directives.classes[i], directives.classEnabled[i]); for(int i = 0; i < directives.packages.length; i++) packageAssertionStatus.put(directives.packages[i], directives.packageEnabled[i]); defaultAssertionStatus = directives.deflt; } // Retrieves the assertion directives from the VM. private static native AssertionStatusDirectives retrieveDirectives(); } class SystemClassLoaderAction implements PrivilegedExceptionAction { private ClassLoader parent; SystemClassLoaderAction(ClassLoader parent) { this.parent = parent; } public ClassLoader run() throws Exception { String cls = System.getProperty("java.system.class.loader"); if (cls == null) { return parent; } Constructor ctor = Class.forName(cls, true, parent) .getDeclaredConstructor(new Class[] { ClassLoader.class }); ClassLoader sys = (ClassLoader) ctor.newInstance( new Object[] { parent }); Thread.currentThread().setContextClassLoader(sys); return sys; } }

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