.NET6中哈希算法的简化用法的实现

Intro

微软在 .NET 6 中引入一些更简单的 API 来使用 HMAC 哈希算法(MD5/SHA1/SHA256/SHA384/SHA512)

微软的叫法叫做 HMAC One-Shoot method, HMAC 算法在普通的哈希算法基础上增加了一个 key,通过 key 提升了安全性,能够有效避免密码泄露被彩虹表反推出真实密码, JWT(Json Web Token) 除了可以使用 RSA 方式外也支持使用 HMAC 。

New API

新增的 API 定义如下:

namespace System.Security.Cryptography { 
    public partial class HMACMD5 { 
        public static byte[] HashData(byte[] key, byte[] source); 
        public static byte[] HashData(ReadOnlySpan key, ReadOnlySpan source); 
        public static int HashData(ReadOnlySpan key, ReadOnlySpan source, Span destination); 
        public static bool TryHashData(ReadOnlySpan key, ReadOnlySpan source, Span destination, out int bytesWritten); 
    } 
 
    public partial class HMACSHA1 { 
        public static byte[] HashData(byte[] key, byte[] source); 
        public static byte[] HashData(ReadOnlySpan key, ReadOnlySpan source); 
        public static int HashData(ReadOnlySpan key, ReadOnlySpan source, Span destination); 
        public static bool TryHashData(ReadOnlySpan key, ReadOnlySpan source, Span destination, out int bytesWritten); 
    } 
 
    public partial class HMACSHA256 { 
        public static byte[] HashData(byte[] key, byte[] source); 
        public static byte[] HashData(ReadOnlySpan key, ReadOnlySpan source); 
        public static int HashData(ReadOnlySpan key, ReadOnlySpan source, Span destination); 
        public static bool TryHashData(ReadOnlySpan key, ReadOnlySpan source, Span destination, out int bytesWritten); 
    } 
 
    public partial class HMACSHA384 { 
        public static byte[] HashData(byte[] key, byte[] source); 
        public static byte[] HashData(ReadOnlySpan key, ReadOnlySpan source); 
        public static int HashData(ReadOnlySpan key, ReadOnlySpan source, Span destination); 
        public static bool TryHashData(ReadOnlySpan key, ReadOnlySpan source, Span destination, out int bytesWritten); 
    } 
 
    public partial class HMACSHA512 { 
        public static byte[] HashData(byte[] key, byte[] source); 
        public static byte[] HashData(ReadOnlySpan key, ReadOnlySpan source); 
        public static int HashData(ReadOnlySpan key, ReadOnlySpan source, Span destination); 
        public static bool TryHashData(ReadOnlySpan key, ReadOnlySpan source, Span destination, out int bytesWritten); 
    } 
} 

Sample Before

在之前的版本中想要实现计算 HMAC 算法会比较复杂,之前实现了一个 HashHelper 来封装了常用的 Hash 算法和 HMAC 算法,HashHelper 部分代码如下,完整代码可以从 Github 获取:https://github.com/WeihanLi/WeihanLi.Common/blob/dev/src/WeihanLi.Common/Helpers/HashHelper.cs

///  
/// 获取哈希之后的字符串 
///  
/// 哈希类型 
/// 源 
/// key 
/// 是否是小写 
/// 哈希算法处理之后的字符串 
public static string GetHashedString(HashType type, byte[] source, byte[]? key, bool isLower = false) 
{ 
    Guard.NotNull(source, nameof(source)); 
    if (source.Length == 0) 
    { 
        return string.Empty; 
    } 
    var hashedBytes = GetHashedBytes(type, source, key); 
    var sbText = new StringBuilder(); 
    if (isLower) 
    { 
        foreach (var b in hashedBytes) 
        { 
            sbText.Append(b.ToString("x2")); 
        } 
    } 
    else 
    { 
        foreach (var b in hashedBytes) 
        { 
            sbText.Append(b.ToString("X2")); 
        } 
    } 
    return sbText.ToString(); 
} 
 
///  
/// 计算字符串Hash值 
///  
/// hash类型 
/// 要hash的字符串 
/// hash过的字节数组 
public static byte[] GetHashedBytes(HashType type, string str) => GetHashedBytes(type, str, Encoding.UTF8); 
 
///  
/// 计算字符串Hash值 
///  
/// hash类型 
/// 要hash的字符串 
/// 编码类型 
/// hash过的字节数组 
public static byte[] GetHashedBytes(HashType type, string str, Encoding encoding) 
{ 
    Guard.NotNull(str, nameof(str)); 
    if (str == string.Empty) 
    { 
        return Array.Empty(); 
    } 
    var bytes = encoding.GetBytes(str); 
    return GetHashedBytes(type, bytes); 
} 
 
///  
/// 获取Hash后的字节数组 
///  
/// 哈希类型 
/// 原字节数组 
///  
public static byte[] GetHashedBytes(HashType type, byte[] bytes) => GetHashedBytes(type, bytes, null); 
 
///  
/// 获取Hash后的字节数组 
///  
/// 哈希类型 
/// key 
/// 原字节数组 
///  
public static byte[] GetHashedBytes(HashType type, byte[] bytes, byte[]? key) 
{ 
    Guard.NotNull(bytes, nameof(bytes)); 
    if (bytes.Length == 0) 
    { 
        return bytes; 
    } 
 
    HashAlgorithm algorithm = null!; 
    try 
    { 
        if (key == null) 
        { 
            algorithm = type switch 
            { 
                    HashType.SHA1 => new SHA1Managed(), 
                    HashType.SHA256 => new SHA256Managed(), 
                    HashType.SHA384 => new SHA384Managed(), 
                    HashType.SHA512 => new SHA512Managed(), 
                    _ => MD5.Create() 
            }; 
        } 
        else 
        { 
            algorithm = type switch 
            { 
                    HashType.SHA1 => new HMACSHA1(key), 
                    HashType.SHA256 => new HMACSHA256(key), 
                    HashType.SHA384 => new HMACSHA384(key), 
                    HashType.SHA512 => new HMACSHA512(key), 
                    _ => new HMACMD5(key) 
            }; 
        } 
        return algorithm.ComputeHash(bytes); 
    } 
    finally 
    { 
        algorithm.Dispose(); 
    } 
} 

使用示例如下:

HashHelper.GetHashedBytes(HashType.MD5, "test"); 
HashHelper.GetHashedBytes(HashType.MD5, "test".GetBytes()); 
HashHelper.GetHashedBytes(HashType.MD5, "test", "testKey"); 
HashHelper.GetHashedBytes(HashType.MD5, "test".GetBytes(), "testKey".GetBytes()); 
 
HashHelper.GetHashedString(HashType.MD5, "test"); 
HashHelper.GetHashedString(HashType.SHA1, "test".GetBytes()); 
HashHelper.GetHashedString(HashType.SHA256, "test", "testKey"); 
HashHelper.GetHashedString(HashType.MD5, "test".GetBytes(), "testKey".GetBytes()); 

New API Sample

有了新的 API 以后可以怎么简化呢,来看下面的示例:

var bytes = "test".GetBytes(); 
var keyBytes = "test-key".GetBytes(); 
 
// HMACMD5 
var hmd5V1 = HMACMD5.HashData(keyBytes, bytes); 
var hmd5V2 = HashHelper.GetHashedBytes(HashType.MD5, bytes, keyBytes); 
Console.WriteLine(hmd5V2.SequenceEqual(hmd5V1)); 
 
// HMACSHA1 
var hsha1V1 = HMACSHA1.HashData(keyBytes, bytes); 
var hsha1V2 = HashHelper.GetHashedBytes(HashType.SHA1, bytes, keyBytes); 
Console.WriteLine(hsha1V2.SequenceEqual(hsha1V1)); 
 
// HMACSHA256 
var hsha256V1 = HMACSHA256.HashData(keyBytes, bytes); 
var hsha256V2 = HashHelper.GetHashedBytes(HashType.SHA256, bytes, keyBytes); 
Console.WriteLine(hsha256V2.SequenceEqual(hsha256V1)); 
 
// HMACSHA384 
var hsha384V1 = HMACSHA384.HashData(keyBytes ,bytes); 
var hsha384V2 = HashHelper.GetHashedBytes(HashType.SHA384, bytes, keyBytes); 
Console.WriteLine(hsha384V2.SequenceEqual(hsha384V1)); 
 
// HMACSHA512 
var hsha512V1 = HMACSHA512.HashData(keyBytes ,bytes); 
var hsha512V2 = HashHelper.GetHashedBytes(HashType.SHA512, bytes, keyBytes); 
Console.WriteLine(hsha512V2.SequenceEqual(hsha512V1)); 

直接使用对应的 HMAC 哈希算法的 HashData 方法即可,传入对应的 key 和 原始内容就可以了,上面是和我们 HashHelper 封装的方法进行对比,看结果是否一致,都是一致的,输出结果如下:

.NET6中哈希算法的简化用法的实现_第1张图片

More

对于普通的哈希算法,微软其实在 .NET 5 就已经支持了上面的用法,可以尝试一下下面的代码:

var bytes = "test".GetBytes(); 
 
// MD5 
var md5V1 = MD5.HashData(bytes); 
var md5V2 = HashHelper.GetHashedBytes(HashType.MD5, bytes); 
Console.WriteLine(md5V2.SequenceEqual(md5V1)); 
 
// SHA1 
var sha1V1 = SHA1.HashData(bytes); 
var sha1V2 = HashHelper.GetHashedBytes(HashType.SHA1, bytes); 
Console.WriteLine(sha1V2.SequenceEqual(sha1V1)); 
 
// SHA256 
var sha256V1 = SHA256.HashData(bytes); 
var sha256V2 = HashHelper.GetHashedBytes(HashType.SHA256, bytes); 
Console.WriteLine(sha256V2.SequenceEqual(sha256V1)); 
 
// SHA384 
var sha384V1 = SHA384.HashData(bytes); 
var sha384V2 = HashHelper.GetHashedBytes(HashType.SHA384, bytes); 
Console.WriteLine(sha384V2.SequenceEqual(sha384V1)); 
 
// SHA512 
var sha512V1 = SHA512.HashData(bytes); 
var sha512V2 = HashHelper.GetHashedBytes(HashType.SHA512, bytes); 
Console.WriteLine(sha512V2.SequenceEqual(sha512V1)); 

很多时候我们可能都会要使用 MD5 或者 SHA1 之后的字符串,不知道为什么微软没有直接获取一个字符串的方法,如果有这样一个方法,就会更方便了,相比之后,感觉还是自己封装的 HashHelper 使用起来更舒服一些,哈哈,这样的静态方法不够抽象如果要动态替换哈希算法代码可能就有点...

References

https://github.com/dotnet/runtime/pull/53487
https://github.com/dotnet/runtime/issues/40012
https://github.com/dotnet/core/issues/6569#issuecomment-913876347
https://baike.baidu.com/item/hmac/7307543?fr=aladdin
https://github.com/WeihanLi/SamplesInPractice/blob/master/net6sample/HashSample/Program.cs
https://github.com/WeihanLi/WeihanLi.Common/blob/dev/src/WeihanLi.Common/Helpers/HashHelper.cs

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