springcloud gateway如何实现路由和负载均衡

简介:

gateway主要是做路由 负载,过滤 主要是替代zuul 1.x 性能比zuul好 zuul是基于

Servlet ,gateway是基于spring-webflux 用的netty+reactor

yml文件

实现路由 负载 的配置 亲自测试

spring:
  application:
    name: xgyx_gateway
  cloud:
    discovery:
      locator:
        enabled: true
    gateway:
       routes:
       - id: a  #随便定义不重复就好
         uri: lb://xgyx-welfareservice-x  #服务名称
         predicates:
         - Path=/m/**  #前端访问需加入例如 http:ip:port/m
         filters:
         - StripPrefix=1 #访问后端服务过滤掉m 必填否则找不到后端服务也可以在服务加上统一路径
         - name: Hystrix  #熔断
           args:
             name: default
             fallbackUri: forward:/defaultfallback  #熔断后访问路径
       - id: b
         uri: lb://xgyx-welfareservice
         predicates:
         - Path=/welfare/**
         filters:
         - StripPrefix=1
         - name: Hystrix
           args:
             name: default
             fallbackUri: forward:/fallback
#熔断时间
hystrix:
  command:
    default:
      execution:
        isolation:
          strategy:  SEMAPHORE
          thread:
            timeoutInMilliseconds: 300000  #熔断时间

上面是用了两天时间根据官网上的demo和说明自己测的可以使用 上面 stripPrefix 用的是 PrefixPath 过滤器 其他过滤器使用可以看官网

springcloud gateway 自定义负载均衡

相关类及接口

LoadbalancerClientFilter:使用ribbon负载均衡,默认使用该类(已不推荐使用)

/** @deprecated */
@Deprecated
public class LoadBalancerClientFilter implements GlobalFilter, Ordered {
    public static final int LOAD_BALANCER_CLIENT_FILTER_ORDER = 10100;
    private static final Log log = LogFactory.getLog(LoadBalancerClientFilter.class);
    protected final LoadBalancerClient loadBalancer;
    private LoadBalancerProperties properties;
 
    public LoadBalancerClientFilter(LoadBalancerClient loadBalancer, LoadBalancerProperties properties) {
        this.loadBalancer = loadBalancer;
        this.properties = properties;
    }
 
    public int getOrder() {
        return 10100;
    }
 
    public Mono filter(ServerWebExchange exchange, GatewayFilterChain chain) {
        URI url = (URI)exchange.getAttribute(ServerWebExchangeUtils.GATEWAY_REQUEST_URL_ATTR);
        String schemePrefix = (String)exchange.getAttribute(ServerWebExchangeUtils.GATEWAY_SCHEME_PREFIX_ATTR);
        if (url != null && ("lb".equals(url.getScheme()) || "lb".equals(schemePrefix))) {
            ServerWebExchangeUtils.addOriginalRequestUrl(exchange, url);
            if (log.isTraceEnabled()) {
                log.trace("LoadBalancerClientFilter url before: " + url);
            }
 
            ServiceInstance instance = this.choose(exchange);
            if (instance == null) {
                throw NotFoundException.create(this.properties.isUse404(), "Unable to find instance for " + url.getHost());
            } else {
                URI uri = exchange.getRequest().getURI();
                String overrideScheme = instance.isSecure() ? "https" : "http";
                if (schemePrefix != null) {
                    overrideScheme = url.getScheme();
                }
 
                URI requestUrl = this.loadBalancer.reconstructURI(new DelegatingServiceInstance(instance, overrideScheme), uri);
                if (log.isTraceEnabled()) {
                    log.trace("LoadBalancerClientFilter url chosen: " + requestUrl);
                }
 
                exchange.getAttributes().put(ServerWebExchangeUtils.GATEWAY_REQUEST_URL_ATTR, requestUrl);
                return chain.filter(exchange);
            }
        } else {
            return chain.filter(exchange);
        }
    }
 
    protected ServiceInstance choose(ServerWebExchange exchange) {
        return this.loadBalancer.choose(((URI)exchange.getAttribute(ServerWebExchangeUtils.GATEWAY_REQUEST_URL_ATTR)).getHost());
    }
}

说明:默认使用该类,可通过下述方法使用ReactiveLoadbalancerClientFilter

​"You already have RibbonLoadBalancerClient on your classpath. It will be used by default.
As Spring Cloud Ribbon is in maintenance mode. We recommend switching to " + BlockingLoadBalancerClient.class.getSimpleName() + " instead.
In order to use it, set the value of `spring.cloud.loadbalancer.ribbon.enabled` to `false`
or remove spring-cloud-starter-netflix-ribbon from your project."

ReactiveLoadBalancerClientFilter:负载均衡拦截器

public class ReactiveLoadBalancerClientFilter implements GlobalFilter, Ordered {
    private static final Log log = LogFactory.getLog(ReactiveLoadBalancerClientFilter.class);
    private static final int LOAD_BALANCER_CLIENT_FILTER_ORDER = 10150;
    private final LoadBalancerClientFactory clientFactory;
    private LoadBalancerProperties properties; 
    public ReactiveLoadBalancerClientFilter(LoadBalancerClientFactory clientFactory, LoadBalancerProperties properties) {
        this.clientFactory = clientFactory;
        this.properties = properties;
    }
 
    public int getOrder() {
        return 10150;
    }
 
    public Mono filter(ServerWebExchange exchange, GatewayFilterChain chain) {
        URI url = (URI)exchange.getAttribute(ServerWebExchangeUtils.GATEWAY_REQUEST_URL_ATTR);
        String schemePrefix = (String)exchange.getAttribute(ServerWebExchangeUtils.GATEWAY_SCHEME_PREFIX_ATTR);
        if (url != null && ("lb".equals(url.getScheme()) || "lb".equals(schemePrefix))) {
                            //url不为null且协议为lb,或者url以lb开头
 
            ServerWebExchangeUtils.addOriginalRequestUrl(exchange, url);
            if (log.isTraceEnabled()) {
                log.trace(ReactiveLoadBalancerClientFilter.class.getSimpleName() + " url before: " + url);
            }
 
            return this.choose(exchange).doOnNext((response) -> {
                            //获取ServiceInstance实例,进行一些处理
 
                if (!response.hasServer()) {
                            //如果没有serviceInstance,直接抛出异常
 
                    throw NotFoundException.create(this.properties.isUse404(), "Unable to find instance for " + url.getHost());
                } else {    //如果有serviceInstance,进行相关处理
                    URI uri = exchange.getRequest().getURI();
                    String overrideScheme = null;
                    if (schemePrefix != null) {
                        overrideScheme = url.getScheme();
                    }
 
                    DelegatingServiceInstance serviceInstance = new DelegatingServiceInstance((ServiceInstance)response.getServer(), overrideScheme);
                    URI requestUrl = LoadBalancerUriTools.reconstructURI(serviceInstance, uri);
                    if (log.isTraceEnabled()) {
                        log.trace("LoadBalancerClientFilter url chosen: " + requestUrl);
                    }
 
                    exchange.getAttributes().put(ServerWebExchangeUtils.GATEWAY_REQUEST_URL_ATTR, requestUrl);
                }
            }).then(chain.filter(exchange));
        } else {
            return chain.filter(exchange); //如果获取不到serviceInstance,直接进行后续过滤
        }
    }
 
    private Mono> choose(ServerWebExchange exchange) {
        URI uri = (URI)exchange.getAttribute(ServerWebExchangeUtils.GATEWAY_REQUEST_URL_ATTR);
        ReactorLoadBalancer loadBalancer = (ReactorLoadBalancer)this.clientFactory.getInstance(uri.getHost(), ReactorLoadBalancer.class, new Class[]{ServiceInstance.class});
        if (loadBalancer == null) {
            throw new NotFoundException("No loadbalancer available for " + uri.getHost());
        } else {
            return loadBalancer.choose(this.createRequest());
        }
    }//选择服务实例
 
    private Request createRequest() {
        return ReactiveLoadBalancer.REQUEST;
    }
}

ReactorLoadBalancer:负载均衡接口

public interface ReactorLoadBalancer extends ReactiveLoadBalancer {
    Mono> choose(Request request); 
    default Mono> choose() {
        return this.choose(REQUEST);
    }
} 
*********************** 
public interface ReactorServiceInstanceLoadBalancer extends ReactorLoadBalancer {
}

RoundRobinLoadbalancer:负载均衡使用轮询

public class RoundRobinLoadBalancer implements ReactorServiceInstanceLoadBalancer {
    private static final Log log = LogFactory.getLog(RoundRobinLoadBalancer.class);
    private final AtomicInteger position; 
    private ObjectProvider serviceInstanceListSupplierProvider;
    private final String serviceId;
 
************
构造方法
 
    public RoundRobinLoadBalancer(ObjectProvider serviceInstanceListSupplierProvider, String serviceId) {
    public RoundRobinLoadBalancer(ObjectProvider serviceInstanceListSupplierProvider, String serviceId, int seedPosition) {
 
************
普通方法
 
    public Mono> choose(Request request) {
        if (this.serviceInstanceListSupplierProvider != null) {
            ServiceInstanceListSupplier supplier = (ServiceInstanceListSupplier)this.serviceInstanceListSupplierProvider.getIfAvailable(NoopServiceInstanceListSupplier::new);
            return ((Flux)supplier.get()).next().map(this::getInstanceResponse);
        } else {
            ServiceInstanceSupplier supplier = (ServiceInstanceSupplier)this.serviceInstanceSupplier.getIfAvailable(NoopServiceInstanceSupplier::new);
            return ((Flux)supplier.get()).collectList().map(this::getInstanceResponse);
        }
    }
 
    private Response getInstanceResponse(List instances) {
        if (instances.isEmpty()) {
            log.warn("No servers available for service: " + this.serviceId);
            return new EmptyResponse();
        } else {
            int pos = Math.abs(this.position.incrementAndGet());
            ServiceInstance instance = (ServiceInstance)instances.get(pos % instances.size());
            return new DefaultResponse(instance);
        }
    }//使用轮询获取实例
}

示例:

参数id为偶数时,输出hello new version

网关

配置文件

spring:
  application:
    name: hello-gateway
  cloud:
    consul:
      host: 172.18.0.20
      port: 8500
    loadbalancer:
      ribbon:
        enabled: false
    gateway:
      routes:
        - id: myRoute
          uri: lb://hello-service
          predicates:
            - Path=/hello

自定义过滤器

@Component
public class CustomLoadBalancerClientFilter implements GlobalFilter, Ordered {
    private static final Log log = LogFactory.getLog(org.springframework.cloud.gateway.filter.ReactiveLoadBalancerClientFilter.class);
 
    @Resource
    private final LoadBalancerClientFactory clientFactory;
 
    @Resource
    private LoadBalancerProperties properties;
 
    public CustomLoadBalancerClientFilter(LoadBalancerClientFactory clientFactory, LoadBalancerProperties properties) {
        this.clientFactory = clientFactory;
        this.properties = properties;
    }
 
    public int getOrder() {
        return 10149;
    }
 
    public Mono filter(ServerWebExchange exchange, GatewayFilterChain chain) {
        URI url = exchange.getAttribute(ServerWebExchangeUtils.GATEWAY_REQUEST_URL_ATTR);
        String schemePrefix = exchange.getAttribute(ServerWebExchangeUtils.GATEWAY_SCHEME_PREFIX_ATTR);
        if (url != null && ("lb".equals(url.getScheme()) || "lb".equals(schemePrefix))) {
            ServerWebExchangeUtils.addOriginalRequestUrl(exchange, url);
            if (log.isTraceEnabled()) {
                log.trace(ReactiveLoadBalancerClientFilter.class.getSimpleName() + " url before: " + url);
            }
 
            return this.choose(exchange).doOnNext((response) -> {
                if (!response.hasServer()) {
                    throw NotFoundException.create(this.properties.isUse404(), "Unable to find instance for " + url.getHost());
                } else {
                    URI uri = exchange.getRequest().getURI();
                    String overrideScheme = null;
                    if (schemePrefix != null) {
                        overrideScheme = url.getScheme();
                    }
 
                    int id=Integer.parseInt(Objects.requireNonNull(exchange.getRequest().getQueryParams().getFirst("id")));
                    if (id%2==0){
                        while (!"new".equals(response.getServer().getMetadata().get("version"))){
                            try {
                                response=this.choose(exchange).toFuture().get();
                            }catch (Exception e){
                                System.out.println(e.getMessage());
                            }
                        }
                    }
 
                    DelegatingServiceInstance serviceInstance = new DelegatingServiceInstance(response.getServer(), overrideScheme);
 
                    System.out.println(exchange.getRequest().getQueryParams().getFirst("id")+"对应server的version为:"+serviceInstance.getMetadata().get("version"));
                    URI requestUrl = LoadBalancerUriTools.reconstructURI(serviceInstance, uri);
                    if (log.isTraceEnabled()) {
                        log.trace("LoadBalancerClientFilter url chosen: " + requestUrl);
                    }
 
                    exchange.getAttributes().put(ServerWebExchangeUtils.GATEWAY_REQUEST_URL_ATTR, requestUrl);
                }
            }).then(chain.filter(exchange));
        } else {
            return chain.filter(exchange);
        }
    }
 
    private Mono> choose(ServerWebExchange exchange) {
        URI uri = exchange.getAttribute(ServerWebExchangeUtils.GATEWAY_REQUEST_URL_ATTR);
        assert uri != null;
        ReactorLoadBalancer loadBalancer = this.clientFactory.getInstance(uri.getHost(), ReactorLoadBalancer.class, new Class[]{ServiceInstance.class});
        if (loadBalancer == null) {
            throw new NotFoundException("No loadbalancer available for " + uri.getHost());
        } else {
            return loadBalancer.choose(this.createRequest());
        }
    }
 
    private Request createRequest() {
        return ReactiveLoadBalancer.REQUEST;
    }
}

同名应用hello-service1

配置文件

spring:
  application:
    name: hello-service
  cloud:
    consul:
      host: 172.18.0.20
      port: 8500
      discovery:
        instance-id: ${spring.application.name}-${random.int}
        tags: version=old

controller 层

@RestController
public class HelloController { 
    @RequestMapping("/hello")
    public String hello(){
        return "hello old version";
    }
}

同名应用hello-service2

配置文件

spring:
  application:
    name: hello-service
  cloud:
    consul:
      host: 172.18.0.20
      port: 8500
      discovery:
        instance-id: ${spring.application.name}-${random.int}
        tags: version=new

controller 层

@RestController
public class HelloController { 
    @RequestMapping("/hello")
    public String hello(){
        return "hello new version";
    }
}

测试输出

consul注册的应用

springcloud gateway如何实现路由和负载均衡_第1张图片

参数测试

springcloud gateway如何实现路由和负载均衡_第2张图片

当id为偶数时,输出为hello new version

以上为个人经验,希望能给大家一个参考,也希望大家多多支持脚本之家。

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