翻译:写作风格要素

写作风格要素

原名:The Elements of Style
作者:威廉·施特伦特
译者:冯晨 chenfengjr
原著版本:THE MAPLE PRESS COMPANY, YORK, PA; 1920
翻译版本:第一版,2020年11月1日

"从历史的角度看,所有的译本都是过渡性的"。 --- 王佐良
谨以此献给写作与翻译。

第一版说明

  • 对于人名、书名和出版社均未翻译(部分出版社有中英文说明)。译者目前尚不具备相关知识。
  • 译者假定本书的读者具备一定的英语基础知识,因此为简洁起见对于一些示例中的单词短语(比如日期)不作翻译。
  • 示例中为了保持原著之英文原味,除译文外仍然贴上英文原文。
  • 示例和批注除非特殊说明都采用本段格式。
  • 译者在学习英文写作时知悉了此部好书,因此想通过翻译,一方面加深学习,一方面分享给诸位。其中仍不免偏颇谬误之处,恳请诸位批评指正。

读者可以参考文章左侧目录生成,以获得更好的阅读体验。

一、引言


本书旨在简要讲述构成平实写作风格的基本要素。它专注于一些常常被忽略的基本点、用法规则和词句组合原则(第二、三章),以减轻教师和学生们的负担。为实现此计划,本书列举了三条而不是一大堆的逗号使用法则和一条分号使用法则,我们相信这四条法则适用于大多数情况。类似的,第三章介绍使用最多的段落和句子规则。本书只覆盖了英文写作风格的小部分。我们的经验是,学生们一经掌握了这些基本点,会随着自己工作中面临的问题的指引而受益;而教师们则偏爱自己的写作理论甚于教科书的那一套。

全文各部分的序号可以作为作者们修正手稿时的参考。

我们在康奈尔大学的同事为本书写作的前期准备提供了许多帮助。感谢George McLane Wood授权本书在规则10中加入他《给作者们的建议》(Suggestions to Authors)的内容。

我们推荐以下书籍作为作者们写作或继续研究时的参考:

  • 与本文第二、三章相关的,

    F. Howard Collins, Author and Printer (Henry Frowde)
    Chicago University Press, Manual of Style
    T. L. Devinne, Correct Composition (The Century Company)
    Horace Hart, Rules for Compositors and Printers (Oxford University Press)
    George McLane Wood, Extracts from the Style-Book of the Government Printing Office (United States Geological Survey)

  • 与本文第三、四章相关的

    The King's English, (Oxford Univerisity Press)
    Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch, The Art of Writing (Putnam) [特别关注其中关于术语的一节]
    George McLane Wood, Suggestions to Authors (United States Geological Survey)
    John Lesslie Hall, English Usage (Scott, Foresman and Co.)
    James P. Kelly, Workmanship in Words (Little, Brown and Co.)

本文简要叙述的点在这些书中得到了详细的讨论和丰富的示例补充。

过去人们会说最好的作家有时无视修辞规则。可是当他们真的违背这些规则时,读者通常会发现他们是以此为代价换取了一些别的优点作为补偿。如果不能同样笃定,作者们最好还是遵守本文提出的规则。首先得通过这些规则的指引在日常使用中练就平实写作,而后才能开始在大师作品中寻找那些关于风格的秘密。

二、英语用法的基本规则


规则1. 附加 's 来构成单数名词所有格

以辅音字母结尾的单词都遵守这条规则。因此,要写

Charles's friend 查尔斯的朋友
Burns's poems 彭斯的诗歌
the witch's malice 巫婆的阴谋

这是美国政府印刷部和牛津大学出版社的用法。

例外情况包括一些以-es-is结尾的古用名:比如所有格 Jesus' 耶稣的for conscience' sake 出于良知for righteousness' sake 出于正义。但对于阿基琉斯的脚后跟、摩西律法和伊西斯神庙,一般写法是

the heal of Achilles; the laws of Moses; the temple of Isis.

一些代词性的所有格没有所有格符号:hers, its, theirs, yoursoneself

规则2. 用连词连接超过三项时,在每一项(除了最后一项)后加逗号

因此,要写

(1) red, white, and blue
(2) gold, silver, or copper
(3) He opened the letter, read it, and made a note of its contents.

(1) 红、白、蓝
(2) 金、银或铜
(3) 他拆开了信、读了起来并给它做了内容上的笔记

这也是美国政府印刷部和牛津大学出版社中的用法。

公司名中通常省略最后一个逗号,比如

Brown, Shipley & Co. 布朗希普利有限公司

规则3. 用逗号分隔插入语

The best way to see a country, unless you are pressed for time, is to travel on foot.
如果你并不赶时间,徒步旅行是观察乡村的最佳方式。

一个单词,比如however或者一个简短语,其插入性通常是模糊的,这导致这项规则难以应用。如果插入带来的中断几乎不影响句子流畅性,可以省略逗号。但不管中断的影响或轻或重,不能只加一个逗号而忽略另一个。像下面的标点方式并不被接受:

(1) Marjorie's husband, Colonel Nelson paid us a visit yesterday.
(2) My brother you will be pleased to hear, is now in perfect health.

(1) 玛乔丽的丈夫纳尔逊上校昨天来拜访我们。
(2) 你一定很高兴听到我的兄弟现在身强体健。

如果插入语被连词先行,那就将逗号放在连词前而非其后。

He saw us coming, and unaware that we had learned of his treachery, greeted us with a smile.
他以为我们还不知道他的背信弃义,看见我们来了只是笑脸相迎。

以下情况总被认为是插入语、并被置于逗号间(在句末则被置于逗号和句号间):

  • 日期中的年份和接在星期后的某月某日:

    February to July, 1916.
    April 6, 1917.
    Monday, November 11, 1918.

  • 缩略词etc.jr.

  • 不起鉴别或定义先行词作用的非限定性定语从句,以及一些用连词引导的表示时间或地点的从句。

    The audience, which had at first been indifferent, became more and more interested.
    观众起初反应冷漠,而后渐渐兴致盎然。

此句中的which并不用来分辨听众的具体类型;在这句话前,我们就已经知道了关于听众的具体知识。 这里的从句是对主句做插入性补充。整句实际由两个独立句组合而成:

The audience had at first been indifferent. It became more and more interested.
[翻译同上]

对比一下不用逗号分隔的限定性定语从句:

The candidate who best meets these requirements will obtain the place.
最契合这些要求的候选者终将获得职位。

这里由who引导的从句明确了候选人的具体类型,如此该句不能被拆分成两个独立句。

以下二句标点的区分使用也基于同样的原则:

(1) Nether Stowey, where Coleridge wrote The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, is a few miles from Bridgewater.
(2) The day will come when you will admit your mistake.

(1) 柯勒律治曾在Nether Stowey写作《古舟子咏》,该地距离Bridgewater只有几英里。
(2) 终有一天你将承认错误。

第一句中的Nether Stowey受自身名字所限定,后面关于柯勒律治的陈述对于该地点来说只是补充性、插入式的。第二句中的day受其从句明确,因此这个从句是限定性的。

原则上,类似插入语的分隔,先行或后置于主句的短语或从句也要用逗号分隔。

Partly by hard fighting, partly by diplomatic skill, they enlarged their dominions to the east, and rose to royal rank with the possession of Sicily, exchanged afterwards for Sardinia.
通过对暴力和外交手段的综合使用,他们将领土延伸到了东方,并且由于对西西里岛(后来与撒丁岛交换)的占有而荣膺皇室阶层。

可以在规则4, 5, 6, 7, 16和18中找到更多的示例。

不要用逗号分隔独立分句:参见规则5。

规则4. 在引导并列分句的连词前加逗号

(1) The early records of the city have disappeared, and the story of its first years can no longer be reconstructed.
(2) The situation is perilous, but there is still one chance of escape.

(1) 关于这座城市的早期记录已经消失了,它最初的故事也已经无从查证。
(2) 现在情况很危急,但仍有一线生机。

这类脱离上下文的句子可能需要重写。例中,由于逗号前的句子表意完整,后面的句子像是事后追加的想法。此外,and 在所有连词中表意最模糊。它仅仅表示其连接的两个独立分句有关联,却不对之作进一步的明确。实际上,上述例子的前后联系符合因果逻辑。那这两句可以如此改写:

(1) As the early records of the city have disappeared, the story of its first years can no longer be reconstructed.
(2) Although the situation is perilous, there is still one chance of escape.

(1) 由于有关这座城市的早期记录已经消失了,它最初的故事也已经无从查证。
(2) 尽管情况危急,仍有一线生机。

或者用短语替代从句:

(1) Owing to the disappearance of the early records of the city, the story of its first years can no longer be reconstructed.
(2) In this perilous situation, there is still one chance of escape.
[翻译同上]

但总是写紧凑句和掉尾句也不足取,如果能偶尔用些松散句式,让写作不显得太正式,读者也可以有喘口气的机会。因此,这样的松散句式常出现在一些轻松自然的写作中。但是应警惕这类松散句式(参见规则14)。

这些由两部分组成的句子中,如果第二句由as(因为)、forornorwhile(与此同时)引导,最好在这些连词前加上逗号。

如果第二句由副词引导,那么逗号由分号替代(规则5)。连接词soyet有副词和连词两种词性,其具体属性取决于它们引导的是并列分句还是从属分句,因此使用两种标点都解释得通。但是因为so(据此,以至于)稍显不正式,原则上应该避免用它。一个简单有效的方案是去掉so而后在第一句句首加上assince

原:I had never been in the place; so I had difficulty in finding my way about.
改:As I had never been in the before, I had difficulty in finding my way about.

我以前没来过这里,不知道该怎么走。

如果第二个独立分句前面是一个从属分句或需要用逗号隔开的引导性短语,那么连词后不需要加逗号。

The situation is perilous, but if we are prepared to act promptly, there is still one chance of escape.
情况固然危急,但如果准备得当、迅速行动,我们仍有一线生机。

当两个分句的主语一致、并且只出现了一次时,如果关系词是but,在but前加逗号;如果是and,当它连接的两个句子关系紧密或直接,省略and前的逗号。

(1) I have heard his arguments, but am still unconvinced.
(2) He has had several years' experience and is thoroughly competent.

(1) 我听了他的论据,但是仍然将信将疑。
(2) 他经验充足,足以胜任。

规则5. 不要用逗号连接独立分句

如果要将两个以上在语法上完整而且没有连词连接的句子构成单一复合句,最好用分号。

(1) Stevenson's romances are entertaining; they are full of exciting adventures.
(2) It is nearly half past five; we cannot reach town before dark.

(1) 史蒂芬逊的罗曼史非常有趣,充满着令人兴奋的冒险。
(2) 现在快五点半了,天黑前我们是赶不到城里了。

当然也可以去掉分号,用句号分隔成两个句子。

(1) Stevenson's romances are entertaining. They are full of exciting adventures.
(2) It is nearly half past five. We cannot reach town before dark.
[翻译同上]

有连词的情况则需要用逗号(规则4)。

(1) Stevenson's romances are entertaining, for they are full of exciting adventures.
(2) It is nearly half past five, and we cannot reach town before dark.
[翻译同上]

对比上述几种表达,可以清楚地看到第一种(加分号)的优势。至少在给出的例子中,它优于第二种而表现了两个分句之间紧密联系;它优于第三种因为其更简洁有力。因此在表示不同陈述之间的关系时,使用分号是最有效的方法之一。如前述,这种关系通常是因果。

注意如果第二句由副词而非连词先行,如accordinglybesidesthenthereforethus,这时仍然要用分号。

得承认两个例外情况。如果连接的分句非常短、并且形式一致,这时允许用逗号。

(1) Man proposes, God disposes.
(2) The gate swung apart, the bridge fell, the portcullis was drawn up.

(1) 谋事在人,成事在天。
(2) 推开大门,放下吊桥,拉起铁闸。

需注意,这些例子中分句之间并无因果关系。在如下句的非正式表达中,也是用逗号而不是分号。但这样的表达在正式写作中并不合适,除了用于故事或剧本中的对话,有时也用于家书。

I hardly knew him, he was so changed,
我几乎认不得他了,他变化太大了,

规则6. 不要拆分完整句

换句话说,在应该写逗号的地方不要用句号。下例中,应将第一个句号换成逗号,并小写其后分句句首字母:

(1) I met them on a Cunard liner three years ago. Coming home from Liverpool to New York.
(2) He was an interesting talker. A man who had traveled all over the world and lived in half a dozen countries.

(1) 三年前我从利物浦回到纽约的家,在途中坐的丘纳德邮轮上碰到了他们。
(2) 他周游全世界并在六个国家生活过,因此说起话来妙趣横生。

作者可以将单词或表达单独用标点分隔表示强调,构成句子的主旨:

Again and again he called out. No reply.
他不停地呼喊。可是无人应答。

然而,这样的强调需要获得大众认可,不然可能被怀疑是在句法或标点上犯了低级错误。

规则3-6覆盖了一般构句中常用标点的最重要的原则。应该熟练掌握它们直至其成为习惯。

规则7. 句首的分词短语形式取决于语法主语

Walking slowly down the road, he saw a woman accompanied by two children.
他慢吞吞地走在路上,看着一个带着俩小孩的妇女。

Walking动作的发出者是主句中的主语he,而不是woman。如果想换过来,作者应这么改写 :

He saw a woman accompanied by two children, walking slowly down the road.
他看见一个妇女带着俩小孩在路上慢慢地走着。

如果句首是由连词或介词引导的分词短语、名词性同位语、形容词和形容词性短语,它们仍要遵守此规则:

原1:On arriving in Chicago, his friends met him at the station.
改1:When he arrived (or, On his arrival) in Chicago, his friends met him at the station.
他一到芝加哥,就见到了接他的朋友们。

原2:A soldier of proved valor, they entrusted him with the defence of the city.
改2:A soldier of proved valor, he was entrusted with the defence of the city.
对于勇猛的战士,人们委其以守卫城邦的重任。

原3:Young and inexperienced, the task seemed easy to me.
改3:Young and inexperienced, I thought the task easy.
少不更事的我以为这项任务简直小菜一碟。

原4:Without a friend to counsel him, the temptation proved irresistible。
改4:Without a friend to counsel him, he found the temptation irresistible.
没有了朋友的监督,他很容易堕入诱惑。

违反这项规则的句子通常贻笑大方:

(1) Being in a dilapidated condition, I was able to buy the house very cheap.
(2) Wondering irresolutely what to do next, the clock struck twelve.

(1) 破旧不堪的我买了一幢廉价房。
(2) 闹钟还在迟疑不决接下来要做什么,接着就敲了十二下。

三、写作基本原则


规则8. 让段落成为写作单元:一个段落呼应一个主题

如果你的描述对象subject几乎没有进一步的延伸,抑或你打算写得很简洁,那就没有必要把它拆分成许多的主题topics。简单描述外观、总结一系列已有工作、讲述一段遭遇、概括性叙述一个动作、给出一个点子,这些最好都写成一段。段落完成后,再看进一步的主题拆分是否有帮助。

然而,描述对象通常需要被拆分成许多主题,并且一个段落呼应一个主题。拆分是为了帮助读者理解。每个段落的开头即提醒读者注意描述对象的新进展。

拆分深度随着写作长度变化。比如,一本书或一篇诗的短介绍就只需要一段,更长的介绍需要如下两个段落:

A. Account of the work. 描述作品.
B. Critical discussion. 批判讨论.

在文学课上,描述一首诗可能需要如下构造七个段落:

A. Facts of composition and publication. 写作和出版事宜
B. Kind of poem; metrical form. 诗的种类,韵律形式
C. Subject. 描述对象
D. Treatment of subject. 对描述对象的处理
E. For what chiefly remarkable. 作品之显著特点
F. Wherein characteristic of the writer. 作者之品性风格
G. Relationship to other works. 与其他作品的关系

C、D的内容因诗而异。通常有需要时,段落C会展示诗作中现实或虚构的环境(诗作处境),然后再道出描述对象、概述其如何发展。如果诗作通篇采用第三人称来叙述,段落C就需要对这种做法进行简要总结。段落D会展示核心思想以及它们何以为之,或者展示诗作实际强调的点。

讨论一篇小说可能遵照以下标题:

A. Setting 设定
B. Plot 情节
C. Characters 人物
D. Purpose 写作意图

讨论一个历史事件可能遵照以下标题:

A. What led up to the event. 导火索
B. Account of the event. 事件内容
C. What the event led up to. 事件导向

对于B、C的内容,可能需要进一步拆分主题和段落。

一项规则是,单句不能构成一段。也有例外的情况,比如说明文或议论文中用来联系上下文的过渡句,甚至有时还必要见于教科书、指导手册和其他作品中,它们对很多主题一笔带过。

在对话中,每一次表达(即使只是一个简单的词)本身就构成一个段落。换句话说,说话者的交替就意味着新段落的开启。在一个印刷精良的虚构性作品中能见到对话与叙述结合的范例。

规则9. 段落开头即主题句,首尾呼应

这么做仍是为了帮助读者。它能让读者在段落初始就发现作者的写作意图,并在段落结束时又重新获得。因此,尤其在说明文或议论文中,段落中最有用的部分通常是在

  • 段首或临近段首的主题句;
  • 紧跟主题句并对之进一步解释、构建、发展的接承句;
  • 要么强调主题句思想、要么阐述重要后果的结尾句。

避免在结尾时离题或者写一些无关紧要的细节。

如果段落是更大写作结构中的部分,需要表达它与前文的关系以及它这部分的功能。有时,这种关系在段首主题句中用一两个单词或短语就能表明,比如again 又一次therefore 因此for the same reason 事出同因。然而,有时更易行的办法是在主题句前加一个以上的引导句、过渡句。如果这样的句子比较多,最好为它们另起一段。

如前述,你可以根据自己的意图在段落主体以这样或那样的方式联系主题句:比如,通过重述主题、明确其中的术语、否定相反的情况、给出图示或具例来使主题句的含义更清晰;通过证据来建立主题;通过给出隐含意义或后果来发展主题。在长段落中,可能会多次执行此过程。

(1) Now, to be properly enjoyed, a walking tour should be gone upon alone. (2) If you go in a company, or even in pairs, it is no longer a walking tour in anything but name; it is something else and more in the nature of a picnic. (3) A walking tour should be gone upon alone, because freedom is of the essence; because you should be able to stop and go on, and follow this way or that, as the freak takes you; and because you must have your own pace, and neither trot alongside a champion walker, nor mince in time with a girl. (4) And you must be open to all impressions and let your thoughts take colour from what you see. (5) You should be as a pipe for any wind to play upon. (6) I cannot see the wit," says Hazlitt, "of walking and talking at the same time. (7) When I am in the country, I wish to vegetate like the country," which is the gist of all that can be said upon the matter. (8) There should be no cackle of voices at your elbow, to jar on the meditative silence of the morning. (9) And so long as a man is reasoning he cannot surrender himself to that fine intoxication that comes of much motion in the open air, that begins in a sort of dazzle and sluggishness of the brain, and ends in a peace that passes comprehension. -- Stevenson, Walking Tours.

(1) 现在,为了充分享受徒步旅程,我们最好独立独行。(2) 如果结伴而行或成双结对,徒步旅行只是空有其名;它会更像是别的什么,含着野餐的精神。(3) 之所以徒步旅行是个人的,是因为其本质是自由;我们要能够随性行走、享受内在的热情;我们必须有自己的节奏,不与冠军竞走,也不与女孩踱步。(4) 我们必须将心放宽至所有的印象,让我们的思想从所见中提取斑斓色彩。(5) 我们得像一件管乐器任风撩拨。(6) Hazlitt说:“我无法在边走边聊中看到智慧的闪现。(7) 当我在乡村中,我就应该有乡村的闲适精神,”这点破了徒步旅行的本质。(8) 我们身边不应该有聒噪的人声来打扰早晨的静坐冥想。(9) 而且,只要一个人开始进行理性思考,他就无法完全融入由外部世界的种种流动带来的微妙沉醉。这沉醉发端于大脑的悠游飘忽,终止于一片超越理解的平和。 -- Stevenson, 《徒步旅行》

(1) 主题句。(2) 否定相反的情况使得主题句更清晰。(3) 主题句受到简短地重复和三重理由的支撑;第三句话的意思(“我们必须有自己的节奏”)也通过否定相反的情况变得更清晰。(4) 用两种方式说明的第四重理由。(5) 用不同的方式说相同的理由。(6-7) Halitt说出同样的理由。(8) 重述Hazlitt的话。(9) 对第四重理由作最后陈述,通过对语言得进行丰富和升华来获得更强的结论。

(1) It was chiefly in the eighteenth century that a very different conception of history grew up. (2) Historians then came to believe that their task was not so much to paint a picture as to solve a problem; to explain or illustrate the successive phases of national growth, prosperity, and adversity. (3) The history of morals, of industry, of intellect, and of art; the changes that take place in manners or beliefs; the dominant ideas that prevailed in successive periods; the rise, fall, and modification of political constitutions; in a word, all the conditions of national well-being became the subject of their works. (4) They sought rather to write a history of peoples than a history of kings. (5) They looked especially in history for the chain of causes and effects. (6) They undertook to study in the past the physiology of nations, and hoped by applying the experimental method on a large scale to deduce some lessons of real value about the conditions on which the welfare of society mainly depend. -- Lecky, The Political Value of History.

(1) 十八世纪对“历史”的概念不同以往。(2) 历史家们开始相信,他们的工作不是勾勒过去而是解决问题,是去解释或阐述国家在连续历史进程中的进步、繁荣与覆灭。(3) 他们的研究对象涉及国家福祉赖以存在的所有条件:关于道德、工业、知识、艺术的历史,人们行为方式或信仰的改变,历史连续进程中的主流思想,以及政治体制的兴衰修补等等。(4) 他们追溯人民的、而非国王的历史。(5) 他们在历史中寻找因果链。(6) 他们研究过去国家的机能运作,并且希望通过大规模实验来推断出有价值的历史教训,推断出社会福利可能依赖的种种条件。 -- Lecky,《历史的政治价值》

(1) 主题句。(2) 定义“历史”之新概念,使主题句更加明确。(3) 扩展定义。(4) 由对比引出定义。(5) 定义的补充:“历史”新概念中的新元素。(6) 结论:“历史”新概念带来的重要结果。

在叙述文和说明文中,可以采用简洁而全面的段落开头来连贯之后的所有细节:

The breeze served us admirably.
The campaign opened with a series of reverses.
The next ten or twelve pages were filled with a curious set of entries.

一阵微风令人沉醉。
战争初期连连受挫。
接下来的十至十二页满是一系列出人意料的条目。

但过度使用这种方式会沦为矫饰主义mannerism。一般仅在开头提及这一段的描述对象。

At length I thought I might return towards the stockade.
He picked up the heavy lamp from the table and began to explore.
Another flight of steps, and they emerged on the roof.

最终我想我应该回到栅栏那儿。
他从桌上拿起笨重的台灯开始摸索。
走几步台阶后,他们出现在了屋顶上。

然而在一些简短生动的描述段落中,通常没有主题句。分段只是为了起修辞上的停顿作用,以突出动作细节描写。

规则10. 使用主动语态

译者注: Writing in the Sciences @Stanford (Coursera) 中更推荐用主动,物作主语时也尽量用主动。

主动语态通常比被动语态更直接、更有力:

I shall always remember my first visit to Boston.
我将永远记得我第一次去波士顿的旅行。

要优于

My first visit to Boston will always be remembered by me.

后面这句在直接、自信和精简的程度上都逊色一筹。如果你尝试省略“by me”来获得简洁度,

My first visit to Boston will always be remembered,

由此只会获得更多的疑惑:这个旅程究竟是被你、某个未知的人或是芸芸众生所铭记?

当然,这项规则并不是说完全放弃被动语态,使用被动语态通常更便捷、有时还会是必需的:

(1) The dramatists of the Restoration are little esteemed today.
(2) Modern readers have little esteem for the dramatists of the Restoration.

(1) 复辟时期的剧作家如今无人问津。
(2) 现在的读者并不推崇复辟时期的剧作家。

第一句是对复辟时期剧作家的合适叙述,而第二句落脚点却是现代读者的品味。在这些例子中,主语决定语态。

一项规则是,不要将被动语态叠着用。

原1:Gold was not allowed to be exported.
改1:It was forbidden to export gold (The export of gold was prohibited).
原2:He has been proved to have been seen entering the building.
改2:It has been proved that he was seen to enter the building.

(改)
(1) 禁止出口金子。
(2) 证据显示有人目击他进入了这幢楼。

在上述"原"例中,与第二个被动语态的动词相关联的单词却做了第一个的主语。

一个常见的错误是将表示整个动作的名词作为主语然后构造被动句,谓语动词仅仅使得句子更完整而无其他意义:

原1:A survey of this region was made in 1900.
改1:This region was surveyed in 1900.
原2:Mobilization of the army was rapidly effected.
改2:The army was rapidly mobilized.
原3:Confirmation of these reports cannot be obtained.
改3:These reports cannot be confirmed.

(改)
(1) 这个区域曾在1900年接受了调查。
(2) 军队迅速集结完毕。
(3) 这些报告无法证实。

这么看可以获得更明显的感受:“The export of gold was prohibited 金子出口受限”,此处谓语“was prohibited 受限制”表达出了“export 出口”所没有的意思。

习惯使用主动语态可以让写作更有力量。这不仅适用于主要与动作相关的叙述文,也适用于任何写作体裁。如果用主动语态的动词描述来替换乏味的表达(如there iscould be heard),会打破原本的死气沉沉会变得更加生动。

原1:There were a great number of dead leaves lying on the ground.
改1:Dead leaves covered the ground.
原2:The sound of a guitar somewhere in the house could be heard.
改2:Somewhere in the house a guitar hummed sleepily.
原3:The reason that he left college was that his health became impaired.
改3:Failing health compelled him to leave college.
原4:It was not long before he was very sorry that he had said what he had.
改4:He soon repented his words.

(改)
(1) 满地落叶。
(2) 在房间的某处,有一把吉他低声嗡鸣,仿佛昏昏欲睡。
(3) 每况愈下的身体迫使他辍学。
(4) 他不久就开始后悔他说过的话。

规则11. 采用肯定形式进行描述

说话直截了当。不要沉闷、乏味、犹豫不决、闪烁其词。只用not来表达否定或对立,而不是作为避难所。

原1:He was not very often on time.
改1:He usually came late.
原2:He did not think that studying Latin was much use.
改2:He thought the study of Latin useless.
原3:“The Taming of the Shrew” is rather weak in spot. Shakespeare does not portray Katharine as a very admirable character, nor does Bianca remain long in memory as an important character in Shakespeare's works.
改3:The women in “The Taming of the Shrew” are unattractive. Katharine is disagreeable, Bianca insignificant.

(改)
(1) 他经常迟到。
(2) 他觉得学习拉丁文毫无用处。
(3) 《驯悍记》中的女人都没什么魅力。凯瑟琳剑拔弩张,拜恩卡无足轻重。

“原3”含混且消极。而修正的结果让整句成为读者对作者意图的猜想。

三个例子都显示了not的固有缺陷。当被告诉什么不是,读者都会有意无意地表示不满意,因为他想知道什么。因此,作为一项规则,最好用肯定形式来表达甚至是否定的含义。

not honest dishonest 虚伪
not important trifling 琐碎
did not remember forgot 忘却
did not pay any attention to ignored 忽视
did not have much confidence in distrusted 丧气

用肯定、否定构成的对比非常强烈。

(1) Not charity, but simple justice.
(2) Not that I loved Caesar less, but Rome the more.

(1) 不要慈善,只求公正。
(2) 我爱罗马甚于凯撒。(我并非不爱凯撒,只是更爱罗马。)

除了not之外的否定词通常语气非常强:

The sun never sets upon the British flag.
英国国旗下太阳永不落。

规则12. 使用明确的、特定的、具体的语言

相对于一般化的、模糊的、抽象的语言,更推荐使用特定的、明确的、具体的语言。

原1:A period of unfavorable weather set in.
改1:It rained every day for a week,
原2:He showed satisfaction as he took possession of his well-earned reward.
改2:He grinned as he pocketed the coin.
原3:There is a general agreement among those who have enjoyed the experience that surf-riding is productive of great exhilaration.
改3:All who have tried surf-riding agree that it is most exhilarating.

(改)
(1) 一周以来天天下雨。
(2) 他赢了钱非常高兴。
(3) 体验过冲浪的人都兴奋不已。

研究过写作之艺的作者都会认同,吸引并抓住读者注意力的最确凿的办法就是使用特定、明确而具体的语言。批评家们不厌其烦地论及那些伟大作家,如荷马、但丁、莎士比亚,说他们贯之以恒的明确性和具体性是如何使得其著作熠熠生辉。更现代的布朗宁提供了许多范例。比如《我的前公爵夫人》的一些诗句:

Sir, 'twas all one! My favour at her breast,
The dropping of the daylight in the west,
The bough of cherries some officious fool
Broke in the orchard for her, the white mule
She rode with round the terrace-all and each
Would draw from her alike the approving speech.
Or blush, at least,

先生,她对什么都一样!
她胸口上佩戴的我的赠品,
或落日的余光,
过分殷勤的傻子在园中攀折给她的一枝樱桃,
或她骑着绕行花圃的白骡--
所有这一切都会使她同样地赞羡不绝,
或至少泛起红晕

--摘自飞白译《勃朗宁诗选》,外语教学与研究出版社

和结尾中的诗句:

Notice Neptune, though,
Taming a sea-horse, thought a rarity,
Which Claus of Innsbruck cast in bronze for me.

但请看这海神尼普顿在驯服海马,
这是件珍贵的收藏,
是克劳斯为我特制的青铜铸像!

--摘自飞白译《勃朗宁诗选》,外语教学与研究出版社

这些词句中令人浮想联翩。依照罗斯金的评论,回顾一下布朗宁在《圣普拉西德教堂主教吩咐后事》中是如何用特定之细节和具体之词语清晰地表现“文艺复兴的精神--它的世俗、变化多端、骄傲、伪善、不顾自我,沉溺于艺术、奢侈和优美的拉丁文”。

同样的方式也可以让散文(尤其是叙述性和描写性的散文)更加生动。如果无数读者会在某一刹感到Jim Hawkins、David Balfour、Kim、Nostromo那些经历的真实性,如果我们在阅读Carlyle描述攻占巴士底狱时仿佛身临其境,这都是凭借文中明确的细节和具体的措辞。他们并非巨细无遗地摆列所有细节--这不可能也没意义--而是对待任何一个重要的细节都不含糊,这让读者可以在明确感中通过想象来设身处地。

译者注:Jim Hawkins:《金银岛》中的主角

在说明文和议论文中,同样要牢守具体之原则;如果陈述一般原则,就必须给出应用实例。

“特定表达的优越性见诸于我们将言语转化为思想所需要做出的努力。我们用特定而非一般的方式来思考--涉及任何一类事物我们都会马上在头脑中举出具体的例子作为代表,一旦我们给出一个抽象的词,听众或读者就需要从他们的图像库中寻求示例以对这类事物有更清晰的感受。写得抽象会造成读者的停顿、花费他们更多的力气;而采取特定表述却能以一种又精简又生动的方式迅速传递合适的图景。”

该段引自赫伯特·斯宾塞的《风格哲学》(Philosophy of Style)。下例为之作进一步阐述:

原:In proportion as the manners, customs, and amusements of a nation are cruel and barbarous, the regulations of their penal code will be severe.
改:In proportion as men delight in battles, bull-fights, and combats of gladiators, will they punish by hanging, burning, and the rack.

改:人们在战争、斗牛和角斗中所获得的快感,会转化到他们利用绞刑、火刑和分尸对别人的惩罚。

规则13. 省略不必要的词

有力的写作必定精简。一个句子、一个段落必须不能再删减一分,就好像画作中不能有多余的线条,机器中不能有鸡肋的构件。这不是说每个句子都要写得很短、甚至略去所有细节而只剩描述对象的轮廓,而是说每一个词都要有的放矢。

许多的常用表达都违反了这些规则:

the question as to whether whether (the question whether) 是否
there is no doubt but that no doubt (doubtless) 毫无疑问
used for fuel purposes used for fuel 用作燃料
he is a man who he 他
in a hasty manner hastily 匆匆忙忙
this is a subject which this subject 本主题
His story is a strange one. His story is strange. 他的故事离奇古怪。

尤其要修改任何地方出现的the fact

owing to the fact that since (because) 因为
in spite of the fact that though (although) 尽管
call your attention to the fact that remind you (notify you) 提醒你
I was unaware of the fact that I was unaware that (did not know) 我不知道
the fact that he had not succeeded his failure 他的失败
the fact that I had arrived my arrival 我的到来

对照fact,同样也注意第五章所说的casecharacternaturesystem

who iswhich was 之类通常是多余的。

原1:His brother, who is a member of the same firm
改1:His brother, a member of the same firm
原2:Trafalgar, which was Nelson's last battle
改2:Trafalgar, Nelson's last battle

(改)
(1) 他的兄弟和他在同一家公司工作
(2) 特拉法尔加海战是纳尔逊的最后一场战役

因为肯定句比否定句、主动语态比被动语态都要更加精简,规则11和规则12中的许多例子也可以佐证本章规则。

通常我们会啰啰嗦嗦地用一系列句子或独立分句来分步描述一个复杂的观点,事实上把它们组成一句可能会更好。

原:Macbeth, was very ambitious. This led him to wish to become king of Scotland. The witches told him that this wish of his would come true. The king of Scotland at this time was Duncan. Encouraged by his wife, Macbeth murdered Duncan. He was thus enabled to succeed Duncan as king. (51 words.)
改:Encouraged by his wife, Macbeth achieved his ambition and realized the prediction of the witches by murdering Duncan and becoming king of Scotland in his place. (26 words.)

原:麦克白雄心勃勃。他希望成为英国国王。女巫告诉他他的愿望会成真。此时的英国国王是邓肯。受妻子的挑唆,麦克白杀了邓肯。他因此成功地接任邓肯成为新国王。
改:受妻子挑唆,麦克白杀了邓肯取而代之成为英国国王,这是他的抱负,也印证了女巫的预言。

原:There were several less important courses, but these were the most important, and although they did not come every day, they came often enough to keep you in such a state of mind that you never knew what your next move would be. (43 words.)
改:These, the most important courses of all, came, if not daily, at least often enough to keep one under constant strain. (21 words.)

原:许多课都不重要,这些才是最重要的。它们并不每天出现,但足够使你记住,你永远都不知道接下来你会行至何方。
改:最重要的课程,也许不会每天来到,但会经常出现让你时刻绷紧心弦。

规则14. 避免堆砌松散句式

这项规则尤其针对那些由两个并列句组成、第二个分句通常由连词或者关系词引导的松散句式。偶尔使用还好(规则4),但是大量使用会让人觉得单调而乏味。

初学写作的人有时会写一整段这样的句子,其中使用大量的连词,如andbutso,或者更少见些的,在一些非限制性定语从句中,使用whowhichwhenwherewhile(规则3)。

The third concert of the subscription series was given last evening, and a large audience was in attendance. Mr. Edward Appleton was the soloist, and the Boston Symphony Orchestra furnished the instrumental music. The former showed himself to be an artist of the first rank, while the latter proved itself fully deserving of its high reputation. The interest aroused by the series has been very gratifying to the Committee, and it is planned to give a similar series annually hereafter. The fourth concert will be given on Tuesday, May 10, when an equally attractive programme will be presented.

昨晚举行了募捐系列的第三场音乐会,会上听众如潮。Mr. Edward Appleton是独奏,波士顿交响乐则表演器乐。前者显示了他作为一流艺术家的才华,后者则证明它确实名副其实。群众对这个系列反响热烈,委员会对此非常满意,并且打算之后的每一年都举行相似的系列。第四场音乐会将会在5月10日的周二举行,届时我们将看到同样精彩的演出。

上面这个段落不仅空洞乏味,而且结构上有着僵硬的对称、让人觉得喋喋不休,这些毛病让整个段落经不起推敲。可以对比一下规则9中或其他任何一篇优秀的英语散文段落,比如《名利场》的前言 (开场白)。

如果用了一系列上述句式,就应该尽可能地重写来去除单调性,比如改写成一系列简单句、使用分号连接分句、构建由两个分句组成的掉尾句、构建由三个分句组成的松散句或掉尾句,而无论哪种方式都应最好地表现前后文在思想上的真正关系。

译者注:掉尾句(Periodic sentences),也叫圆周句,是指作者把最为重要的信息放到句末来表达的句子结构。 掉尾句在结构上因为是先讲次要信息,后讲重要信息,在写作上可以起到造悬念的作用。

规则15. 用相似句式表达同等地位的观点

这项原则要求含有相似内容和功能的表达在形式上也要相似,以构成排比句式。形式上的相似性可以让读者更快地接受内容和功能上的相似性。可以常在《圣经》中见到此类例子,如摩西十诫、天国八福、主祷文请愿书。

初学写作的人通常会违背这条规则,他们错误地认为应该不停地变换写作形式。确实起强调作用的重复可能需要变换形式,规则10中引自Stevenson的段落可以作为例证。但是在其他的情况中,作者应该采用排比句。

原:Formerly, science was taught by the textbook method, while now the laboratory method is employed.
改:Formerly, science was taught by the textbook method; now it is taught by the laboratory method.

原:以前,科学通由教科书传授,而现在实验室的方法则被采用。
改:以前,科学通过教科书传授;如今,它由实验教承。

原句中我们会感觉作者犹豫不决、不太自信,他似乎不能、或者害怕选择保持某一种形式。修改句至少显得作者做出了选择并且前后一致。

据此原则,在对属于一个系列的成员使用冠词或介词时,应该要么用在第一个,要么在每一项中都用。

原1:The French, the Italians, Spanish and Portuguese
改1:The French, the Italians, the Spanish, and the Portuguese
原2:In spring, summer, or in winter
改2:In spring, summer, or winter (In spring, in summer, or in winter)

(改)
(1) 法国人、意大利人、西班牙人和葡萄牙人
(2) 在春天、夏天或冬天

关联性表达(both, and; not, hut; not only, hut also; either, or; first, second, third;等)也遵循同样的语法结构,也即使用相同的说话方式。(像“both Henry and I”、“not silk, but a cheap substitute”显然符合规则。) 许多句子违背此规则,通常(比如下面的“原1”-“原3”)是由于句子排布有问题,其他的(比如“原4”)则是由于采用了不对称的句式结构。

原1:It was both a long ceremony and very tedious.
改1:The ceremony was both long and tedious.
原2:A time not for words, but action.
改2:A time not for words, but for action.
原3:Either you must grant his request or incur his ill will.
改3:You must either grant his request or incur his ill will.
原4:My objections are, first, the injustice of the measure; second, that it is unconstitutional.
改4:My objections are, first, the measure is unjust; second, that it is unconstitutional.

(改)
(1) 这个庆典冗长乏味。
(2) 不要止于言语,而应诉诸行动。
(3) 你如果不答应他的请求,就会招致他的报复。
(4) 我反对的地方是,这个衡量方式一不公正、二不合法。

可以对照规则12来看第三句,对照规则13看最后一句。

有可能存在这样的问题:如果要处理一大堆相似的观念,比如20条,该怎么办呢?难道是连续写作20个模样相仿的句子?但如果仔细检查,你可能会发现这一切只是空想,因为这20个相似的观点完全可以被分组,然后就只需要在每一组中运用此规则即可。否则,你最好做一张表格来处理表达上的困难。

规则16. 把有关联的词放在一起

句中不同词语的位置是用来表示它们之间关系的主要方式。因此,应该尽可能地将思想上有联系的词或一组词放在一起,反之则让它们分开。

一项规则是,不应将原本可以放在句首的短语或从句插在主语和主要动词之间。

原1:Wordsworth, in the fifth book of The Excursion, gives a minute description of this church.
改1:In the fifth book of The Excuration, Wordsworth gives a minute description of this church.
原2:Cast iron, when treated in a Bessemer converter, is changed into steel.
改2:By treatment in a Bessemer converter, cast iron is changed into steel.

(改)
(1) 在《远游》的第五本中,华兹华斯对教堂作了精细的刻画。
(2) 通由贝塞麦转炉,铸铁转炼成钢。

这类插入受到反对的原因是它们通常不必要地打断了主句的自然语序。但也有例外:一种是用关系从句或同位语作插入,一种在掉尾句中故意产生中断来吊读者的胃口(参见规则18)。

一项规则是,关系代词应该紧跟它的先行词。

原1:There was a look in his eye that boded mischief.
改1:In his eye was a look that boded mischief.
原2:He wrote three articles about his adventures in Spain, which were published in Harper's Magazine.
改2:He published in Harper's Magazine three articles about his adventures in Spain.
原3:This is a portrait of Benjamin Harrison, grandson of William Henry Harrison, who became President in 1889.
改3:This is a portrait of Benjamin Harrison, grandson of William Henry Harrison. He became President in 1889.

(改)
(1) 他的眼中闪过一道邪恶的光。
(2) 他在Harper杂志中发表了三篇关于他去西班牙冒险的文章。
(3) 这幅肖像画上的是本杰明·哈里逊的孙子,威廉·亨利·哈里逊。他在1889年任总统。

如果先行词是一组词,关系词紧跟其后,除非这样做会引起歧义。

A. The Superintendent of the Chicago Division, who
B.
原 :A proposal to amend the Sherman Act, which has been variously judged.
改1:A proposal, which has been variously judged, to amend the Sherman Act.
改2:A proposal to amend the much-debated Sherman Act.
C.
原:The grandson of William Henry Harrison, who
改:William Henry Harrison's grandson, who

A. 这位芝加哥分部主管,...
B.
改1:这项针对休曼法案修改的提议已经过多方审判
改2:对拥有众多争议的休曼法案的修改提议
C.
改:威廉·亨利·哈里逊的孙子,...

同位语名词可以插在先行词和关系词之间,这样做不会造成任何歧义。

The Duke of York, his brother, who was regarded with hostility by the Whigs
辉格党与他的兄弟约克公爵势不两立

可能的话,修饰语紧跟其修饰的词。如果一个词有多个修饰语,要整理它们的次序而不至于表示出错误关系。

原1:All the members were not present.
改1:Not all the members were present.
原2:He only found two mistakes.
改2:He found only two mistakes.
原3:Major R. E. Joyce will give a lecture on Tuesday evening in Bailey Hall, to which the public is invited, on "My Experiences in Mesopotamia" at eight p.m.
改3:On Tuesday evening at eight p.m., Major R. E. Joyce will give in Bailey Hall a lecture on "My Experiences in Mesopotamia." The public is invited.

(改)
(1) 并不是所有的会员都在场.
(2) 他发现只有两个错误。
(3) 周二晚上八点,Major R. E. Joyce将会在Bailey Hall举行一场名为《行在美索不达米亚》的演讲。欢迎各位参加。

规则17. 在概述中,使用一种时态

在概述一场剧的舞台动作时,总是用现在时。在总述诗作、故事或小说时,你也可以自愿使用过去时,但更推荐用现在时。如果概述使用了现在时,那么先行动作应该是完成时;如果概述用了过去时,先行动作则是过去完成时。

An unforeseen chance prevents Friar John from delivering Friar Lawrence's letter to Romeo. Meanwhile, owing to her father's arbitrary change of the day set for her wedding, Juliet has been compelled to drink the potion on Tuesday night, with the result that Balthasar informs Romeo of her supposed death before Friar Lawrence learns of the non-delivery of the letter.

因为一场出乎意料的偶然事件,约翰修士没能将劳伦斯修士的信送到罗密欧的手中。而在周二夜晚,受迫于父亲蛮横地改变自己的婚期,朱丽叶饮下毒药。这下劳伦斯修士还没能知晓这封信没有送到,巴尔瑟萨已向罗密欧告知朱丽叶的假死亡。

但无论概述采用何种时态,间接引语或间接疑问句中的过去时保持不变。

The Friar confesses that it was he who married them.
修士承认是他给他们举行了婚礼。

此外,全文要统一时态。在不同时态间切换会给人不确定和意志不决的印象(对比规则15)。

在呈现别人的陈述或者想法时,比如总结一篇论文或者转述别人的话时,应该避免插入以下这类词:he said(他说)、he stated(他讲道)、the speaker added(说者附加)、the speaker then went to say(说者接着又说)、the author also thinks(作者也认为)等。在一开始就一次讲清楚现在要写的是总结,并在之后不再重复提示。

在笔记、新闻、文学手册中,不同类型的概述是非常重要的,培养小学生们用自己的话重述一个故事也是有益的练习。但是在批评或解析文学作品时,要谨防无意识的总结。这时你可能发现有必要先用一两个句子来指出作品的描述对象或者最初场景,甚至援引大量细节来阐述作品对象的特质。但是注意不能以随便的评论来作总结,而是应该利用证据进行有条不紊的讨论。同样的,如果讨论范围涉及一系列著作,那么一项规则是最好不要按照时间顺序处理它们,而是一开始就给出一般性的结论。

规则18. 将有强调的词放在句尾

突出词或一组词的最合适的方式是把它们放在句尾。

原1:Humanity has hardly advanced in fortitude since that time, though it has advanced in many other ways.
改1:Humanity, since that time, has advanced in many other ways, but it has hardly advanced in fortitude.
原2:This steel is principally used for making razors, because of its hardness.
改2:Because of its hardness, this steel is principally used in making razors.

(改)
(1) 从那时起,人性在许多方面都有了进步,除了胆量。
(2) 由于硬度,这种钢主要用来制作剃须刀。

正如第二句示例,在显著位置的单个或一组词通常是逻辑谓词,也即句中的元素。

译者注:谓词是用来表达客体性质或关系的词,比如动词、动宾结构、副词修饰。

掉尾句的作用是给主要陈述带来了强调。

(1) Four centuries ago, Christopher Columbus, one of the Italian mariners whom the decline of their own republics had put at the service of the world and of adventure, seeking for Spain a westward passage to the Indies as a set-off against the achievements of Portuguese discoverers, lighted on America.
(2) With these hopes and in this belief I would urge you, laying aside all hindrance, thrusting away all private aims, to devote yourself unswervingly and unflinchingly to the vigorous and successful prosecution of this war.

(1) 四世纪以前,克里斯托弗·哥伦布,这个受着共和国衰落的影响而走上世界和冒险的征程,打算为西班牙开辟一条向西通往印度的道路来作为与葡萄牙发现者们的成就抗争的起点的意大利海员,登上了美洲大陆。
(2) 出于这些希望与信任我强烈要求你,要排除万难、丢下私心,义无反顾、无所畏惧地投入这场壮烈的战争。

句子的另一个显著位置是句首。除了主语,任何放在句首的元素都可能受到强调。

(1) Deceit or treachery he could never forgive.
(2) So vast and rude, fretted by the action of nearly three thousand years, the fragments of this architecture may often seem, at first sight, like works of nature.

(1) 欺骗与背叛是他绝不能原谅的。
(2) 宽广而粗野,是这些建筑碎片在历经三千年的风沙洗磨后给人呈现的第一印象,浑然若天成。

句子中主语先行也可能受到强调,但这并不是单单因为它所处的位置。在下句中,

Great kings worshipped at his shrine,
伟大的国王向着他的圣地朝拜

kings的强调很大部分是来自它的含义和上下文。如果要对其进行特别的强调,必须将主语被放在谓词的位置:

Through the middle of the valley flowed a winding stream.
山谷中流淌着一条蜿蜒的小溪。

此项“将重要的信息放在末尾”的原则同样适用于一个句子中的词语,一个段落中的句子,以及一篇文章中的段落。

四、一些形式上的问题


标题

在文稿的标题后空一行,或用相同长度的间隔代替。在后续的页面,如果采用坐标纸,从第一行开始写。

数字

不要把日期或其他序列号完整拼出来,直接写数字或罗马符号可能更合适。

August 9, 1918 (9 August 1918)
Chapter XII
Rule 3
352nd Infantry

圆括号

在对句子进行标点时,可以忽略括号以及其中的内容。括号内容独立而有自己的标点符号,但如果最后的标点是句号就要省略,是问号或感叹号则要加上。

I went to his house yesterday (my third attempt to see him), but he had left town.
He declares (and why should we doubt his good faith?) that he is now certain of success.

我昨天去了他住的地方(这是我第三次去找他了),但是他已经离开城区了。
他宣称(我们为什么要质疑他的信念?)现在他一定能成功。

(如果有一整句被括起来了,应保留括号内最终的句号。)

引语

正式引语用作文献式证据时要用冒号引导、由引号包围。

The provision of the Constitution is: " No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state."
宪章中规定:“不应对各州出口的什物征收赋税、强制义务。”

在语法上用作同位语或者动词直接宾语的引语前都有逗号,并且由引号包围。

I recall the maxim of La Rochefoucauld, "Gratitude is a lively sense of benefits to come."
Aristotle says, "Art is an imitation of nature."

我想起了拉罗什福克的箴言,“感恩是对即将到来的美好而激动不已”。
亚里士多德说,“艺术模仿自然”。

引用占了一整行或者更多的诗句时,需要另起一段将其居中放置,但不需要打引号。

Wordsworth's enthusiasm for the Revolution was at first unbounded:
Bliss was it in that dawn to be alive,
But to be young was very heaven!

华兹华斯对法国大革命的热情空前高涨:
在黎明时能活着已是欢愉,
但保持年轻却如极乐天堂!

that 引导的引语是间接引语,不需要由引号包围。

Keats declares that beauty is truth, truth beauty.
济慈说美即是真,真即是美。
(或者:济慈说美和真本是同一。)

引用谚语和为人们熟知的文学短语不需要引号。

These are the times that try men's souls.
He lives far from the madding crowd.

这是考验人们灵魂的时代。
他远离尘嚣。

引用一些日常用语和俚语也不需要加引号。

参考

在对参考要求精确的学术研究作品中,应缩写频繁出现的名称,而在文章最后按字母顺序给出所有引用的全称。通常将参考列在括号或脚注中,而非文章主体部分。省略act scene line book volume page 之类的词,除非只参考其中一项。具体标点如下例。

译者注:牛津词典中,book有一项意思为“ A main division of a literary work or of the Bible. ” 也即圣经或文学作品中的一种分节方式,比如the Book of Genesis 创世记。

A.
原:In the second scene of the third act.
改:In III.ii (still better, simply insert III.ii in parenthesis at the proper place in the sentence)
B. After the killing of Polonius, Hamlet is placed under guard (IV.ii.14).
C. 2 Samuel i:17-27
D. Othello II.iii. 264-267, III.iii. 155-161.

A. 在第二幕第二场III.ii(将之插入在句中合适位置的括号中仍然是更好的做法)
B. 在波洛涅斯被杀后,哈姆莱特身边多了些护卫(第四幕第二场第14页Iv.ii.14)
C. 《撒母耳记下》第一章第17-27页
D.《奥赛罗》第二幕第三场第264-267页,第三幕第三场第155-161页

音节标注

如果行末没有整个单词的空间,应该按照音节拆分单词并将它们换行显示,除非拆分后只有一个字母或者是长单词中的两个字母。并没有一个放诸四海皆准的拆分规则。但有以下几个最常用的原则:

  • 按单词结构划分:

    know-ledge (not knowl-edge); Shake-speare (not Shakes-peare);
    de-scribe (not des-oribe) ; atmo-sphere (not atmos-phere)

  • 在元音处断开:

    edi-ble (not ed-ible); propo-sition; ordi-nary; espe-cial; reli-gious;
    oppo-nents; regu-lar; classi-fi-ca-tion (three divisions allowable);
    deco-rative; presi-dent;

  • 在重复字母处断开,除非前一部分是简单形式的单词:

    Apen-nines; Cincin-nati; refer-ring; but tell-ing.

  • 如果词末-ede不发音,不要在此处断开:

    treat-ed (but not roam-ed or nam-ed).

对于一组辅音的断开,下例做了很好的说明:

for-tune; pic-ture; sin-gle; presump-tuous; illus-tration; sub-stan-tial
(either division); indus-try; instruc-tion; sug-ges-tion; incen-diary.

学生们在查阅任何一本印刷精良的书的音节划分时会获益匪浅。

书名

学术界通常喜欢用斜体加上大写首字母来标称文学著作书名。编辑和出版商的写法则各异,有的喜欢用斜体加大写首字母,有的则喜欢用西文白正体(Roman)加上大写首字母再加上(有时也不加)引号。除了一些有特殊要求的期刊,我们推荐用斜体(表强调)。如果书名前有所有格,那么要省略书名首词中本有的A、The。

The Iliad 《伊利亚特》(荷马)
the Odyssey 《奥德赛》(荷马)
As You Like It 《皆大欢喜》(莎士比亚)
To a Skylark 《致云雀》(雪莱)
The Newcomes 《纽克姆一家》(萨克雷)
A Tale of Two Cities 《双城记》
Dickens's Tale of Two Cities 狄更斯的《双城记》

五、 常被误用的单词与表达


(一些在此处列出的英语表达是糟糕的,比如like I did;其他的像分裂不定式,反对的意见多于支持的意见,所以不建议用它;还有一些词,如casefactorfeatureinterestingone of the most,本来是好词却常常出现在错误的地方。如果你一开始就想精确表达自己的想法,但又不愿满足于任何能够省却麻烦的既定规则,采用本章列出的表达会带来一些麻烦。但是如果发现自己不小心使用了其中的某项表达,对策并不是在局部修修补补,而是应该重写整个句子。具体请参见下例和规则12、13中的示例。)

All right. 在比较轻松的语境中使用的特定词,通常单独使用,表示“同意”或“请继续”。避免别的用法。它只由两个单词构成。

As good or better than. 重写有此类表达的句子:

原:My opinion is as good or better than his.
改:My opinion is as good as his, or better (if not better).

我的观点比他的更好,(如果不是更好)至少也保持相同水平。

As to whether. 使用whether就够了。参见规则13。

Bid. 用不定式时没有to。意为“预订”时,其过去时为bade。

But. doubthelp后应省略but

原1:I have no doubt but that
改1:I have no doubt that
原2:He could not help see but that
改2:He could not help seeing that

(1) 我对此毫不怀疑
(2) 他不得不看到

过度使用连词but会导致规则14中提到的问题。如规则4所说,一个用but连接的松散句总是可以改成由although引导的掉尾句。

尤见笨拙的是使用一个接一个的but来构成多重对比或保留意见。

原:America had vast resources, but she seemed almost wholly unprepared for war. But within a year she had created an army of four million men.
改:America seemed almost wholly unprepared for war, but she had vast resources. Within a year she had created an army of four million men.

美国似乎没有为战争做任何准备,然而她资源丰富。她在一年之内就组建了一支四百万众的军队。

Can. 表示有能力。不能用来替换may

Case. 简明牛津词典对之以这样的解释开头:“事物存在的实例;事件通常的状态。”按照这两个含义,case通常可以被省略。

原1:In many cases, the rooms were poorly ventilated.
改1:Many of the rooms were poorly ventilated.
原2:It has rarely been the case that any mistake has been made.
改2:Few mistakes have been made.

(1) 许多房间的通风都很差。
(2) 很少出错。

参见Wood《对作者的建议》(Suggestions to authors)第68-71页,以及Quiller-Couch《写作之艺》(The Art of Writing)第103-106页。

Certainly. 一些作者不加区分地使用它,同样的还有very,来强化所有的陈述。这种做法是矫饰主义,在说话中显得非常不好,在写作中尤甚。

Character. 通常是叨叨不休的赘余产物。

原:Acts of a hostile character
改:Hostile acts
敌意行为

Claim, vb. 它接名词作宾语表示宣称lay claim to。如果这个意思显而易见,其后可以接一个从句:“He claimed that he was the sole surviving heir. 他称他是唯一活下来的继承人。” (但是这里用claim to be更好。)不用它来替换declaremaintaincharge等。

Clever. 这个词已经被用烂了;最好只用来表示小聪明。

Compare. compare to (将...比作...)指出或暗示不同等级事物之间的相似性;compare with(与...相比)则表示同级事物之间的不同点。因此生命常be compared to朝圣、戏剧或战争;国会却可能be compared with英国议会。巴黎应be compared to古雅典,却应be compared with现代伦敦。

Consider. 当表示“相信...是...”时后不接as,"I consider him thoroughly competent. 我相信他非常有竞争力。" 对比"The lecturer considered Cromwell first as soldier and second as administrator, 演讲者认为克伦威尔首先是个军人然后才是个行政官员," 这里consider表示考察和讨论。

Data. 是复数,类似的还有phenomenastrata

These data were tabulated.
这些数据被整理成了表格。

Dependable. 不用来替代reliabletrustworthy

Different than. 这是不对的。应该用different fromother than或者unlike

Divided into. 不要与composed of(由...组成)混用。很难划清楚这两个词组之间的界限,但可以肯定的是剧本是divided into不同幕,而诗作是composed of不同节。

Don't. 它是Do not 的缩写;Does not 的缩写是Doesn't

Due to. 作为状语时,被错误地用来替代throughbecause of 或者owing to:"He lost the first game, due to carelessness. 他粗心大意丢了比赛。" 正确用法应该是作为特定名词的谓词或修饰语:"This invention is due to Edison; 这项发明由爱迪生所创;" "losses due to preventable fires. 本可避免的由大火造成的损失。"

Folk. 集合名词,等同于people。只用单数形式。

Effect. 作名词时意为结果;动词意为引发bring about、完成accomplish(不与表示“影响”的affect混淆)。实际情况是,effect作为名词时,通常被敷衍地用在关于时尚、音乐、绘画和其他艺术的写作里:"an Oriental effect 东方效应;" "effects in pale green 浅绿色的效果;" "very delicate effects 精巧的外观;" "broad effects 广泛的影响;" "subtle effects 微妙的影响;" "a charming effect was produced by ... ...造成了迷人的效果。" 要写得明确而不是这般模糊。

Etc.and the restand so forth(如此等等);当etc.不能达意时,不要用它去替代读者会有疑问的任何重要的细节。不容异议的是,etc. 完全可以作为末项用来替代一些早已给出完整内容的部分或者引语末端不重要的词。
etc.用在such asfor example或其他类似的表达后是不正确的。

Fact. 仅用它表示可以获得直接验证的事物,而不是判断结果。发生在某一天的事件,铅在一定温度下可以融化,这些都是facts。但是像拿破仑是现代最伟大的将军、加利佛尼亚州的气候非常宜人这类的结论,无论看上去有多么无可非议,都不是facts
关于the fact that的用法,参见规则13。

Factor. 陈词滥调。在写作中,它常常可以用一些更直接、更特定的表达替换。

原1:His superior training was the great factor in his winning the match.
改1:He won the match by being better trained,
原2:Heavy artillery has become an increasingly important factor in deciding battles.
改2:Heavy artillery has played a constantly larger part in deciding battles.

(1) 他由于训练有素赢得了这场比赛。
(2) 重型火炮一直以来都是战役中起决定性作用的部分。

Feature. 另一滥调陈词。像factor,在句中它通常没有任何意义。

原:A feature of the entertainment especially worthy of mention was the singing of Miss A.
改:(Better use the same number of words to tell what Miss A. sang, or if the programme has already been given, to tell how she sang. )

原:这场晚会值得一提的地方是A小姐的歌唱。
改:(最好再花同样的笔墨描述一下A女士唱了什么,或者如果人手一本晚会手册,那就描述下她唱得如何。)

作为动词时,避免用作意思为“以...作为特殊吸引人的东西”,因为这有些广告性。

Fix. 美式口语(非正式用语)中表示arrange 安排prepare 准备mend 修补。写作中限于表示书面感较强的fasten 系上make firm 加强immovable 坚不可摧 等。

Get. 口语中have gothave可以省略,但写作中不可以。过去分词形式推荐使用got

He is a man who. 常见的冗余表达;参见规则13。

原1:He is a man who is very ambitious.
改1:He is very ambitious.
原2:Spain is a country which I have always wanted to visit.
改2:I have always wanted to visit Spain.

(1) 他雄心勃勃。
(2) 我一直想去西班牙看看。

Help. 参见But.

However. 表示尽管如此/然而nevertheless时,不放在句首。

原:The roads were almost impassable. However, we at last succeeded in reaching camp.
改:The roads were almost impassable. At last, however, we succeeded in reaching camp.

这些路阻遏重重。但我们最终还是到达了露营处。

放在句首时,表示“无论以何种方式”或“无论到何种程度”。

(1) However you advise him, he will probably do as he thinks best.
(2) However discouraging the prospect, he never lost heart.

(1) 无论你给出什么建议,他大概还是会按照自己认定最佳的方式来做。
(2) 无论前程多险峻,他勇敢如初。

Interesting. 用它介绍别物显得很敷衍,要避免这种用法。不要宣称即将说的很有意思,而要通过具体阐述呈现出其中的趣味。

原1:An interesting story is told of
改1:(Tell the story without preamble. )
原2:In connection with the anticipated visit of Mr. B. to America, it is interesting to recall that he
改2:Mr. B., who it is expected will soon visit America.

原1:这是一个很有趣的故事
改1:(不用铺垫(悬念),直接讲故事。)
原2:想到B先生即将来美国,想想他...是很有意思的
改2:预计不久将拜访美国的B先生

Kind of.(形容词或动词前)不用来替换rather,(名词前)也不用来替换something like,除了非正式场合下。

译者注:在Webster词典中, familiar有一个意思是 "marked by informality ",比如familiar essay。

限用于书面含义:“Amber is a kind of fossil resin 琥珀是一种化石树脂;” “I dislike that kind of notoriety 我讨厌那种恶名。” 以上同样适用于sort of

Less. 区别于fewer

原:He had less men than in the previous campaign.
改:He had fewer men than in the previous campaign.

他的军员比上次战役更少了。

Less涉及量quantity,而fewer涉及数number。“His troubles are less than mine” 意思是 “他经历的挫折不如我的大”,而"His troubles are fewer than mine" 意思是“他经历的挫折不如我的多”。然而,"The signers of the petition were less than a hundred 请愿书申请人不超过一百个" 的说法却正确,此处a hundred像是一个集合名词,因此用less表示更少的量。

Like. 不与as混用。其后接名词和代词;而as后则接短语或从句。

原1:We spent the evening like in the old days.
改1:We spent the evening as in the old days.
原2:He thought like I did.
改2:He thought as I did (like me).

(1) 我们像以前一样度过了那个夜晚。
(2) 他和我的想法如出一辙。

Line, along these lines. Line 可以用来表示步骤、行动路线、思路等,但却被滥用了,尤见于along the lines 按照这些方法。因此若为了更多的新意或原创性,最好完全舍弃它。

译者注:Webster对Line的一项解释为,
a course of product, action, or though; especially: an official or public position

原1:Mr. B. also spoke along the same lines.
改1:Mr. B. also spoke, to the same effect.
原2:He is studying along the line of French literature.
改2:He is studying French literature.

(1) B先生的一席话也有同样的意思。
(2) 正研究法国文学。

Literal, literally.(事实上;简直)通常误用于构成夸张或粗暴的比喻。

原1:A literal flood of abuse.
改1:A flood of abuse.
原2:Literally dead with fatigue
改2:Almost dead with fatigue (dead tired)

(1) 暴虐如虎
(2) 累得不成人样

Lose out. 本想用它来加重 lose 的语气,但实际却因为其过于常见而获得了相反的效果。类似的例子还包括try out, win out, sign up, register up。此外,在动词中加入outup会获得与原本不同的意思,如find out, run out, turn out, cheer up, dry up, make upLose out不属于后种情况。

Most. 不可以用来替换almost 几乎

Most everybody → Almost everydoby 几乎所有的人
Most all the time → Almost all the time 几乎所有时候

Nature. 和character一样,通常是赘余。

Acts of a hostile nature → Hostile acts 敌对行为

用在短语中通常表意模糊,如lover of naturepoems about nature。如果接着没有进一步的具体描述,读者不会明白作者到底是要写自然风光、乡村生活、日暮斜阳、无人荒野还是小松鼠的日常。

Near by. 至今不受待见的状语性短语,尽管close byhard by这两类形式相同的词好像为它作了辩解。用near或者near at hand就比较好。
不能用作形容词;同义下改用neighboring

Oftentimes, ofttimes. 古用法,现少用。用often

One hundred and one. 遵循古英语中英语散文的用法,保留这类短语中的and

One of the most. 避免用于文章或段落的开头,如“One of the most interesting developments of modern science is, etc.; 现代科学最有趣的进展之一是,等等;” “Switzerland is one of the most interesting countries of Europe. 瑞士是欧洲最有意思的国家之一。” 这么用并没有什么错,只是不脱俗套、外强中干。
常见的错误是在它作为先行词的关系从句中用单数形式的动词。

原:One of the ablest men that has attacked this problem.
改:One of the ablest men that have attacked this problem.

最有能力攻克此难关的人们中的一员

Participle for verbal noun.

译者注:此处应为"Participle or verbal noun"(分词还是动名词)

上1:Do you mind me asking a questions?
下1:Do you mind my asking a question?
上2:There was little prospect of the Senate accepting even this compromise.
下2:There was little prospect of the Senate's accepting even this compromise.

(1) 我能问一个问题吗?
(2) 参议院鲜有可能接受这个折中方案。

“上”句中,askingaccepting都是现在分词;“下”句中,它们则成为了动名词。“上”句的句式结构并不常见但是有它的支持者。但很容易看到第二组句并不是从参议院谈可能性,而是专注于接受的可能性。至少从此角度看,“上2”并不合逻辑。

The King's English的作者指出,许多不用所有格的句子显而易见就属于这类 ,但我们会看到并非如此:

译者注: “这类”是说A不用所有格,则是从A、而不是其动作的角度谈可能性。

I cannot imagine Lincoln refusing his assent to this measure.
我无法想象林肯会回绝这项他曾表示同意的举措。

此句中,作者不能想像的是林肯(不是别人)竟然会回绝他自己曾表示同意的观点。但如果他照下面这么写,意思也是一样,只不过是少些许生动性:

I cannot imagine Lincoln's refusing his assent to this measure.

用所有格比较保险。

上述句子的结构是不错的:动作的主语是单数形式、且未经修饰,紧接其所修饰的动名词。但是如果可以简化,或者用所有格显得很笨拙、甚至是不可能的,那得重写句子。

原1:In the event of a reconsideration of the whole matter's becoming necessary
改1:If it should become necessary to reconsider the whole matter
原2:There was great dissatisfaction with the decision of the arbitrators being favorable to the company.
改2:There was great dissatisfaction that the arbitrators should have decided in favor of the company.

(1) 如果重新考虑整件事情是必需的话
(2) 仲裁人公然表示支持这家公司引起了群众的不满。

People. The people是政治术语,不要与the public混淆。我们从people获得政治上的支持或反对;我们从public获得艺术上的欣赏或商业上的赞助。

译者注:Webster对The people的解释为,
the ordinary people in a country who do not have special power or privileges

Phase. 表示过渡或发展阶段:“the phase of the moon; 月球所处阶段;” “the last phase. 最后一步。” 不用作aspect 方面topic 话题

Possess. 不要单纯用来替换haveown

原1:He possessed great courage.
改1:He had great courage (was very brave).
原2:He was the fortunate possessor of
改2:He owned

(1) 他勇气可嘉。
(2) 他拥有...

Prove. 它的过去分词是proved

Respective, respectively. 这些词优先被省略。

原1:Works of fiction are listed under the names of their respective authors.
改1:Works of fiction are listed under the names of their authors.
原2:The one mile and two mile runs were won by Jones and Cummings respectively.
改2:The one mile and two mile runs were won by Jones and by Cummings.

(1) 这些小说列于其作者名后。
(2) 一英里和两英里赛道的冠军分别是Jones和Cummings.

在一些正式写作中,比如几何证明,可能必须使用respectively。但它不应出现在一般写作中。

Shall, Will. 在将来时中,主语是第一人称用shall,主语是第二或第三人称用willI shall 表示说话者相信自己未来会做什么;I will 则表示决心或认同。

Should. 参见Would

So. 写作中避免用作加强描述,如"so good;" "so warm;" "so delightful."
参见规则4关于so引导分句的用法。

Sort of. 参见Kind of

Split Infinitive. 早在十四世纪以前就有人在to和它引导的不定式之间插入副词,但现在几乎所有的严谨的作者都已经反对并且避免这种做法。

To diligently inquire → To inquire diligently 追问不止

State. 不要单纯用来替换sayremark。只用它来表示express fully or clearly 完全或清晰地表达 ,比如“He refused to state his objections. 他拒绝对他的反对做出任何解释。”

Student Body. 多余而笨拙的表达方式。不如用更简单的students

原1:A member of the student body
改1:A student
原2:Popular with the student body
改2:Liked by the students
原3:The student body passed resolutions.
改3:The students passed resolutions.

(1) 一个学生
(2) 受学生喜爱
(3) 学生们通过了这项决议。

System. 通常是多余的。

原1:Dayton has adopted the commission system of government
改1:Dayton has adopted government by commission
原2:The dormitory system
改2:Dormitories

(1) 代顿市区政府采用委员会制
(2) 宿舍

Thanking You in Advance. 这么写好像是在说,“这不值得我再说一遍。” 在做出请求时,要写“Will you please 能否请你”或“I shall be obliged 我将非常感激”。如果必要的话,可以再写一封致谢信。

They. 它是复数代词,通常被错误地用指代如eacheach oneevery bodyevery onemany a man这类指称一个群体却不说明具体成员的词。这些词尽管表达复数含义,但是其代词是单数。与之相似的是在anybodyany onesomebodysome one等先行词之后不假思索地用复数代词,目的仅仅是为了避开使用笨拙的he/she或从中二选一。一些忸怩不安的作者甚至这么说:“A friend of mine told me that they, etc.
对于以上情况都用he作代词,除非先行词是或者必须是女性。

Very. 少用这个词。用本身很强的词来构成强调。

Viewpoint. 表示观点时常用point of view,但不要滥用。

While. 不要不加区分地用它来表示andbutalthough。许多作者常用while来代替andbut,要么是单纯地希望使用更加丰富的连接词,要么是受迫于不清楚到底该用两者中的哪一个。如果是这种情况,最好用分号。

原:The office and salesrooms are on the ground floor, while the rest of the building is devoted to manufacturing.
改:The office and salesrooms are on the ground floor; the rest of the building is devoted to manufacturing.

办公区和销售处在一楼;其余楼层均用作生产。

在合理、无歧义的情况下,可以用来代替although

While I admire his energy, I wish it were employed in a better cause.
我欣赏他的活力,但我希望他能用对地方。

从它的重述句中我们可以看到用while是对的:

I admire his energy; at the same time I wish it were employed in a better cause.

比较:

原:While the temperature reaches 90 or 95 degrees in the daytime, the nights are often chilly.
改:Although the temperature reaches 90 or 95 degrees in the daytime, the nights are often chilly.

白天温度会达到90或95华氏度,但晚上通常非常冷。

从它的重述句中我们可以看到用while是错的:

The temperature reaches 90 or 95 degrees in the daytime; at the same time the nights are often chilly.

一般而言,我们最好只取while的常用义during the time that 当...的时候

Whom. 常误用于he said或类似表达之前来代替who,充当后续动词的主语。

原1:His brother, whom he said would send him the money
改1:His brother, who he said would send him the money
原2:The man whom he thought was his friend
改2:The man who (that) he thought was his friend (whom he thought his friend)

(1) 他说他的兄弟常送钱来
(2) 这个他一直当作朋友的人

Worth while. 过多地用来表示同意或者(加not)不同意。严格的仅仅用于修饰行动:“Is it worth while to telegraph? 现在发电报有意义吗?”

原:His books are not worth while.
改:His books are not worth reading (are not worth one's while to read; do not repay reading; are worthless).

他的书不值得读(不值得花费任何的功夫)。

用它来修饰名词(如a worth while story)也不可取。

Would. 在条件陈述中,如果主语是第一人称,用should而不是would

I should not have succeeded without his help.
没有他的帮助,我不可能成功。

间接引语中,如果主句动词是过去时,原来的shall应转换为should而不是would

He predicted that before long we should have a great surprise.
他预测不久后我们会有一个大大的惊喜。

如果是表示习惯的或者重复的动作,不用would,用过去时就足够了,这样简单且更能起到强调的效果。

原:Once a year he would visit the old mansion.
改:Once a year he visited the old mansion.

他以前每年会去一次老宅。

六、拼写


英语单词的拼写并非恒久不变,它成形于大众而非受权威限定。现在大家已经对大多数单词的拼写达成了一致。比如在下述例子中,rimerhyme唯一受认可的变体;其他所有的形式都是英语发展中的阶段产物。然而,任何时候都会有少部分词有多种拼写形式。渐渐的,这些形式中有一个会受到大家的偏好,其他的就渐渐离群弃野。这已经成为了一个规律。一直以来,创词者们都会引入新的尤其是简化的词,它们要么脱颖而出、要么随风而逝。

一些不被接受的和过度简化的拼写通常不被读者接受,因此我们反对作者使用这些类型的词。这些词纷扰读者的注意力、消磨他们的耐心。比如读者不由自主地读着though,没意识到它那不必要的复杂性;他读着简写的tho,却需要花费精力在心中补充全形。作者的写作与其初衷背道而驰了。

通常被错拼的词
accidentally criticize duel advice deceive
ecstasy affect definite effect believe
describe embarrass benefit despise existence
challenge develop fascinate coarse disappoint
fiery course dissipate formerly humourous
opportunity sacrilegious hypocrisy parallel seize
immediately Philip separate impostor playwright
shepherd incident preceding siege incidentally
prejudice similar latter principal smile
led principle too lose priviledge
tragedy marriage pursue tries mischief
repetition undoutedly murmur rhyme until
necessary rhythm villain occurred ridiculous

注意在-ed-ing之前、在短元音后的单个辅音字母通常要双写,如plannedlettingbeginning。(coming例外。)

下列词用连字符:to-dayto-nightto-morrowtogether除外)。

下列词是拆分写的:any oneevery onesome onesome time (表示“从前”时写sometime)。

七、第二章和第三章的练习


第一部分:标点

  1. In 1788 the King's advisers warned him that the nation was facing bankruptcy therefore he summoned a body called the States-General believing that it would authorize him to levy new taxes. The people of France however were suffering from burdensome taxation oppressive social injustice and acute scarcity of food and their representatives refused to consider projects of taxation until social and economic reforms should be granted. The King who did not realize the gravity of the situation tried to overawe them collecting soldiers in and about Versailles where the sessions were being held. The people of Paris seeing the danger organized militia companies to defend their representatives. In order to supply themselves with arms they attacked the Invalides and the Bastille which contained the principal supplies of arms and munitions in Paris.
  2. On his first continental tour begun in 1809 Byron visited Portugal Spain Albania Greece and Turkey. Of this tour he composed a poetical journal Childe Harold's Pilgrimage in which he ascribed his experiences and reflections not to himself but to a fictitious character Childe Harold described as a melancholy young nobleman prematurely familiar with evil sated with pleasures and embittered against humanity. The substantial merits of the work however lay not in this shadowy and somewhat theatrical figure but in Byron's spirited descriptions of wild or picturesque scenes and in his eloquent championing of Spain and Greece against their oppressors. On his return to England in 1811 he was persuaded rather against his own judgment into allowing the work to be published. Its success was almost unprecedented in his own words he awoke and found himself famous.

第二部分:解释下面两句的不同

  1. 'God save thee, ancyent Marinere!
    'From the fiends that plague thee thus—
    Lyrical Ballads, 1798.

    'God save thee, ancient Mariner!
    From the fiends, that plague thee thus!—
    Lyrical Ballads, 1800.

“上帝保佑你,古老的水手!
保佑你免受朋友的折磨!”
《抒情歌谣集》

第三部分:找出并纠正标点中的错误

  1. This course is intended for Freshmen, who in the opinion of the Department are not qualified for military drill.
  2. A restaurant, not a cafeteria where good meals are served at popular prices. — Advt.
  3. The poets of The Nation, for all their intensity of patriotic feeling, followed the English rather than the Celtic tradition, their work has a political rather than a literary value and bears little upon the development of modern Irish verse.
  4. We were in one of the strangest places imaginable. A long and narrow passage overhung on either side by a stupendous barrier of black and threatening rocks.
  5. Only a few years ago after a snow storm in the passes not far north of Jerusalem no less than twenty-six Russian pilgrims perished amidst the snow. One cannot help thinking largely because they made little attempt to save themselves.

第四部分:找出并纠正句子中的错误

  1. During childhood his mother had died.
  2. Any language study is good mind training while acquiring vocabulary.
  3. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land, having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's lease.
  4. Prepared to encounter a woman of disordered mind, the appearance presented by Mrs. Taylor at his entrance greatly astonished him.
  5. Pale and swooning, with two broken legs, they carried him into the house.
  6. Count Cassini, the Russian plenipotentiary, had several long and intimate conversations during the tedious weeks of the conference with his British colleague, Sir Arthur Nicholson.
  7. But though they had been victorious in the land engagements, they were so little decisive as to lead to no important results.
  8. Knowing nothing of the rules of the college or of its customs, it was with the greatest difficulty that the Dean could make me comprehend wherein my wrong-doing lay.
  9. Fire, therefore, was the first object of my search. Happily, some embers were found upon the hearth, together with potatostalks and dry chips. Of these, with much difficulty, I kindled a fire, by which some warmth was imparted to our shivering limbs.
  10. In this connection a great deal of historic fact is introduced into the novel about the past history of the cathedral and of Spain.
  11. Over the whole scene hung the haze of twilight that is so peaceful.
  12. Compared with Italy, living is more expensive.
  13. It is a fundamental principle of law to believe a man innocent until he is proved guilty, and once proved guilty, to remain so until proved to the contrary.
  14. Not only had the writer entree to the titled families of Italy in whose villas she was hospitably entertained, but by royalty also.
  15. It is not a strange sight to catch a glimpse of deer along the shore.
  16. Earnings from other sources are of such a favorable character as to enable a splendid showing to be made by the company.
  17. But while earnings have mounted amazingly, the status of affairs is such as to make it impossible to predict the course events may take, with any degree of accuracy.

译者给出的答案,仅供参考

第一部分

  1. In 1788, the French King's advisers warned him that the nation was facing bankruptcy. Therefore he summoned States-General and authorized him to levy new taxes. But since the people were suffering from burdensome taxation, oppressive social injustice and acute scarcity of food, their representatives refused to consider projects of taxatoin unless social and economic reforms should be granted. The King did not realize the situation's gravity; he tried to collect soliders in and about Versailles where the sessions were being held. To defend their representatives, the Paris people in danger organzied militia companies. They attacked the Invalides and the Bastille which contained the principal supplies of munitions in Paris to arm themselves.

1788年,法国国王的顾问警告国王说国家正濒临崩塌。国王因之召集州长征收赋税。但是人们长期受迫于苛捐杂税、强制性的不公平待遇和食物短缺,因此他们的代表站出来反对税收并呼吁社会改良和经济改革。国王并没有意识到事情的严重性,反而在税制初行的Versailles和周围召集了大量士兵。煎熬中的巴黎民众自觉成军保卫他们的代表。他们攻击了巴黎的军火主库Invalides和Bastille,获得全副武装。

  1. On his first continental tour from 1809, Byron visited Portugal, Spain, Albania, Greece and Turkey. Of this tour he composed a poetical journal, Childe Harold's Pilgrimage. He ascribed his experiences and reflections to fictious Childe Harold which was a melancholy young nobleman and prematurely familiar with evil sated with plearsures and embittered against humanity. The work's merits lay not in the shadow and theatricality; they lay in Bryon's spirited descriptions of wild and in his eloquent championing of Spain and Greece against their oppressors. In 1811, he returned to England and was persuaded rather than determined to publish his work. Its success was almost unprecedented in his own words before he awoke and found himself famous.

1809年,布莱恩开始了第一次欧洲大陆旅行,他游历了葡萄牙、西班牙、阿尔巴尼亚、希腊和土耳其。为之他创制了诗刊《查尔德·哈罗德的朝圣路》。他把经历和自省寄托于虚构的查尔德·哈罗德,这个忧郁而高贵的年轻男性先于常人触碰了那与快乐并存、造就人性苦难的邪恶。这篇作品的意义不在于阴暗与夸张,而在于布莱恩对于荒野自然的描绘、对于西班牙和希腊反对压迫者的公开支持。1811年,他回到了英国,公众的说服力敦促他的意志出版了这部著作。他对于其后的成功始料未及,很久才回过神来。

第二部分

第二句的用词更现代化,也更容易懂

第三部分

  1. This course is intended for Freshmen who, in the opinion of the Department, are not qualified for military drill.
  2. A restaurant, not a cafeteria, where good meals are served at popular prices. — Advt.
  3. The poets of The Nation, for all their intensity of patriotic feeling, followed the English rather than the Celtic tradition; their work has a political rather than a literary value and bears little upon the development of modern Irish verse.
  4. We were in one of the strangest places imaginable: a long and narrow passage overhung on either side by a stupendous barrier of black and threatening rocks.
  5. Only a few years ago after a snow storm in the passes not far north of Jerusalem, no less than twenty-six Russian pilgrims perish amidst the snow. One cannot help thinking largely because they made little attempt to save themselves.

第四部分

  1. During his childhood his mother died.
  2. Any language study trains our mind while acquiring vocabulary.
  3. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land, for which I gave a hundred pounds for my predecessor's lease.
  4. Though prepared to encounter a woman of disordered mind, he was still greatly astonished by the Mrs. Taylor's appearance at his entrance.
  5. Pale and swooning, with two broken legs, he was carried into the house.
  6. During the tedious weeks of the conference, Count Cassini, the Russian plenipotentiary, had several long and intimate conversations with his British colleague, Sir Arthur Nicholson.
  7. Although they had been victorious in the land engagements, they were so little decisive as to lead to no important results.
  8. Since I knew nothing of the rules of the college or its customs, the Dean had great difficulty in making me comprehend wherein my wrong-doing lay.
  9. Therefore, fire was the first object of my search. Happily, I found some embers upon the hearth, together with potatostalks and dry chips. Of these, with much difficulty, I kindled a fire, by which some warmth was imparted to our shivering limbs.
  10. In this connection, a great deal of the past history of the cathedral and Spain is introduced into the novel.
  11. Over the whole scene hung a peaceful haze of twilight.
  12. Compared with Italy, this place is more expensive in living.
  13. It is a principle of law to consider a man innocent until he is proved guilty, and once proved guilty, to remain so until he is proved to the contrary.
  14. The writer had entered to the titled families of Italy in whose villas she was entertained not only by the hospitability but also by royalty.
  15. It is not strange to glimpse deer along the shore.
  16. Earnings from other sources are favorable to enable the company to make a splendid showing.
  17. Although earnings have mounted amazingly, the status of affairs is such as to make it impossible to predict what the course events may take, with any degree of accuracy.

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