如何使用Vue + Electron搭建跨平台应用

如何使用Vue + Electron搭建跨平台应用_第1张图片

基础介绍

  • Electron: 使用 JavaScript, HTML 和 CSS 等 Web 技术创建原生程序的框架
  • Vue.js: Web 前端用于构建用户界面的渐进式框架
  • Vuetify: Vue.js 的 Material Design 组件框架

看完以上介绍,也明白了本文要做的事:用 Vue.js 与 Vuetify 组件,基于 Electron 来创建原生桌面应用。

环境准备

Visual Studio Code

建议使用的 VS Code 编辑代码,下载地址: https://code.visualstudio.com/ 。

同时可安装如下些扩展:

  • ESLint: 代码检查
  • Prettier - Code formatter: 代码格式化
  • Vetur: Vue 代码工具
  • Vue 2 Snippets: Vue 代码提示(可选)

查看 VS Code 版本:

$ code -v
1.46.1
cd9ea6488829f560dc949a8b2fb789f3cdc05f5d
x64

Node.js

Node.js 开发环境,下载地址: https://nodejs.org/en/download/ 。

建议选择 Latest LTS Version ,因为 Electron v9 仍旧使用的 Node.js v12 。

查看 Node, NPM 版本:

$ node -v
v12.18.1

$ npm -v
6.14.5

Yarn

Yarn 包管理工具,相比 NPM 而言: Fast, Reliable, Secure 。

GitHub: https://github.com/yarnpkg/yarn

全局安装 Yarn :

npm config set registry https://registry.npm.taobao.org
npm install -g yarn

查看 Yarn 版本:

$ yarn -v
1.22.4

Vue CLI

Vue CLI 是 Vue.js 开发的标准工具。

GitHub: https://github.com/vuejs/vue-cli

全局安装 Vue CLI :

yarn global add @vue/cli

查看 Vue CLI 版本:

$ vue -V
@vue/cli 4.4.6

创建 Vue.js 应用

vue create my-app

跟随引导进行工程配置,如下:

Vue CLI v4.4.6
? Please pick a preset: Manually select features
? Check the features needed for your project: Babel, TS, Router, Vuex, Linter
? Use class-style component syntax? Yes
? Use Babel alongside TypeScript (required for modern mode, auto-detected polyfills, transpiling JSX)? Yes
? Use history mode for router? (Requires proper server setup for index fallback in production) Yes
? Pick a linter / formatter config: Prettier
? Pick additional lint features: Lint on save
? Where do you prefer placing config for Babel, ESLint, etc.? In dedicated config files
? Save this as a preset for future projects? No
? Pick the package manager to use when installing dependencies: Yarn

~/.vuerc 会保存一些可复用的 preset :

$ cat ~/.vuerc

$ cat ~/.vuerc
{
  "useTaobaoRegistry": true,
  "packageManager": "yarn"
}

运行应用:

cd my-app
yarn serve

浏览器打开 http://localhost:8080/

如何使用Vue + Electron搭建跨平台应用_第2张图片

添加 Vuetify 组件

Vuetify 是 Vue.js 的 Material Design 组件库。也可以换用其他的,如 Element 等。

GitHub: https://github.com/vuetifyjs/vuetify

添加 Vuetify :

cd my-app
vue add vuetify

preset 选择 Default

? Choose a preset: Default (recommended)

添加完成后,编辑下 tsconfig.json

{
  "compilerOptions": {
    ...
    "types": [
-      "webpack-env"
+      "webpack-env",
+      "vuetify"
    ],
    ...
  },
  ...
}

运行应用:

yarn serve

浏览器打开 http://localhost:8080/

如何使用Vue + Electron搭建跨平台应用_第3张图片

编辑 tsconfig.json 是为了修正如下错误

ERROR in /Users/John/Codes/ikuokuo/start-electron/my-app/src/plugins/vuetify.ts(2,21):
2:21 Could not find a declaration file for module 'vuetify/lib'. '/Users/John/Codes/ikuokuo/start-electron/my-app/node_modules/vuetify/lib/index.js' implicitly has an 'any' type.
  Try `npm install @types/vuetify` if it exists or add a new declaration (.d.ts) file containing `declare module 'vuetify/lib';`
    1 | import Vue from "vue";
  > 2 | import Vuetify from "vuetify/lib";
      |                     ^
    3 |
    4 | Vue.use(Vuetify);
    5 |

添加 Electron 构建

如果你可以建一个网站,你就可以建一个桌面应用程序。 Electron 负责将 Web 构建成原生桌面应用。

而将 Vue.js 应用构建成 Electron 应用,现在用 Vue CLI Plugin Electron Builder 即可。

首先,指明下 node 版本:

yarn  add @[email protected] --dev

之后,添加 Electron Builder :

cd my-app
vue add electron-builder

Electron 版本选择 9.0.0

? Choose Electron Version ^9.0.0

添加完成后,编辑下 src/router/index.ts

...
const router = new VueRouter({
-  mode: "history",
+  mode: process.env.IS_ELECTRON ? "hash" : "history",
  base: process.env.BASE_URL,
  routes
});

export default router;

运行应用:

yarn electron:serve

现在是桌面窗口了:

如何使用Vue + Electron搭建跨平台应用_第4张图片

命令定义在了 package.json

{
  ...
  "scripts": {
    "serve": "vue-cli-service serve",
    "build": "vue-cli-service build",
    "lint": "vue-cli-service lint",
    "electron:build": "vue-cli-service electron:build",
    "electron:serve": "vue-cli-service electron:serve",
    "postinstall": "electron-builder install-app-deps",
    "postuninstall": "electron-builder install-app-deps"
  },
  ...
}

yarn 执行即可,如下:

$ yarn lint
yarn run v1.22.4
$ vue-cli-service lint
 DONE  No lint errors found!
✨  Done in 3.17s.

yarn add @[email protected] --dev 是为了修正如下错误

ERROR in /Users/John/Codes/ikuokuo/start-electron/my-app/node_modules/electron/electron.d.ts(1659,31):
1659:31 Cannot extend an interface 'NodeJS.EventEmitter'. Did you mean 'implements'?
...

编辑 src/router/index.ts 是为了修正如下警告

 WARN  It is detected that you are using Vue Router. If you are using history mode, you must push the default route when the root component is loaded. Learn more at https://goo.gl/GM1xZG .

发布 Electron 应用

Vue 应用了 Electron Builder 插件,所以直接用此工具即可。

GitHub: https://github.com/electron-userland/electron-builder

yarn electron:build 编译发布:

# 淘宝镜像,国内下载 Electron 更快
export ELECTRON_MIRROR="https://cdn.npm.taobao.org/dist/electron/"

# macOS 下禁用签名。若要签名,见最后参考
export CSC_IDENTITY_AUTO_DISCOVERY=false

cd my-app
yarn electron:build

dist_electron/ 下即是发布内容。

例如 macOS 可见打包好的 dmg

如何使用Vue + Electron搭建跨平台应用_第5张图片

双击 dmg 试用或安装:

如何使用Vue + Electron搭建跨平台应用_第6张图片

若要修改发布格式或内容,见 Electron Builder 文档: https://www.electron.build/ 。

export CSC_IDENTITY_AUTO_DISCOVERY=false 是为了避免如下错误

...
  • signing         file=dist_electron/mac/my-app.app identityName=gdb_codesign identityHash=BC899AF362F80B3FDB39F966A1601E2AFAFA100B provisioningProfile=none
(node:10223) UnhandledPromiseRejectionWarning: Error: Command failed: codesign --sign BC899AF362F80B3FDB39F966A1601E2AFAFA100B --force --timestamp --options runtime --entitlements /Users/John/Workspace/Codes/start-electron/my-app/node_modules/app-builder-lib/templates/entitlements.mac.plist /Users/John/Workspace/Codes/start-electron/my-app/dist_electron/mac/my-app.app/Contents/Frameworks/Electron Framework.framework/Versions/A/Helpers/chrome_crashpad_handler
error: The specified item could not be found in the keychain.
...
(node:10223) UnhandledPromiseRejectionWarning: Unhandled promise rejection. This error originated either by throwing inside of an async function without a catch block, or by rejecting a promise which was not handled with .catch(). To terminate the node process on unhandled promise rejection, use the CLI flag `--unhandled-rejections=strict` (see https://nodejs.org/api/cli.html#cli_unhandled_rejections_mode). (rejection id: 1)
(node:10223) [DEP0018] DeprecationWarning: Unhandled promise rejections are deprecated. In the future, promise rejections that are not handled will terminate the Node.js process with a non-zero exit code.

参考

  • electron-app
  • start-electron
  • Electron
    • Application Distribution
  • Electron Builder
    • Code Signing
    • Notarize app for macOS

原文:http://yyixx.com/docs/frontend/electron_vue

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