Python tkinter实现日期选择器

如何利用Python的tkinter模块实现日期选择器,根据我在网上的搜索情况,这一块一直是一个盲点。虽然也有接近的答案,并没有真正实用的,我经过几天的探索,终于摸索出一套可用的,分享给大家。

首先,定义一个类,叫Calendar,这个是搬运来的。

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*- 
import calendar
import tkinter as tk
import tkinter.font as tkFont
from tkinter import ttk
datetime = calendar.datetime.datetime
timedelta = calendar.datetime.timedelta

class Calendar:
 def __init__(s, point = None):
 s.master = tk.Toplevel()
 s.master.withdraw()
 s.master.attributes('-topmost' ,True)
 fwday = calendar.SUNDAY
 year = datetime.now().year
 month = datetime.now().month
 locale = None
 sel_bg = '#ecffc4'
 sel_fg = '#05640e'
 s._date = datetime(year, month, 1) #每月第一日
 s._selection = None   #设置为未选中日期
 s.G_Frame = ttk.Frame(s.master)
 s._cal = s.__get_calendar(locale, fwday)
 s.__setup_styles() # 创建自定义样式
 s.__place_widgets() # pack/grid 小部件
 s.__config_calendar() # 调整日历列和安装标记
 # 配置画布和正确的绑定,以选择日期。
 s.__setup_selection(sel_bg, sel_fg)
 # 存储项ID,用于稍后插入。
 s._items = [s._calendar.insert('', 'end', values='') for _ in range(6)]
 # 在当前空日历中插入日期
 s._update()
 s.G_Frame.pack(expand = 1, fill = 'both')
 s.master.overrideredirect(1)
 s.master.update_idletasks()
 width, height = s.master.winfo_reqwidth(), s.master.winfo_reqheight()
 s.height=height
 if point:
 x, y = point[0], point[1]
 else: 
 x, y = (s.master.winfo_screenwidth() - width)/2, (s.master.winfo_screenheight() - height)/2
 s.master.geometry('%dx%d+%d+%d' % (width, height, x, y)) #窗口位置居中
 s.master.after(300, s._main_judge)
 s.master.deiconify()
 s.master.focus_set()
 s.master.wait_window() #这里应该使用wait_window挂起窗口,如果使用mainloop,可能会导致主程序很多错误

 def __get_calendar(s, locale, fwday):
 if locale is None:
 return calendar.TextCalendar(fwday)
 else:
 return calendar.LocaleTextCalendar(fwday, locale)

 def __setitem__(s, item, value):
 if item in ('year', 'month'):
 raise AttributeError("attribute '%s' is not writeable" % item)
 elif item == 'selectbackground':
 s._canvas['background'] = value
 elif item == 'selectforeground':
 s._canvas.itemconfigure(s._canvas.text, item=value)
 else:
 s.G_Frame.__setitem__(s, item, value)

 def __getitem__(s, item):
 if item in ('year', 'month'):
 return getattr(s._date, item)
 elif item == 'selectbackground':
 return s._canvas['background']
 elif item == 'selectforeground':
 return s._canvas.itemcget(s._canvas.text, 'fill')
 else:
 r = ttk.tclobjs_to_py({item: ttk.Frame.__getitem__(s, item)})
 return r[item]

 def __setup_styles(s):
 # 自定义TTK风格
 style = ttk.Style(s.master)
 arrow_layout = lambda dir: (
 [('Button.focus', {'children': [('Button.%sarrow' % dir, None)]})]
 )
 style.layout('L.TButton', arrow_layout('left'))
 style.layout('R.TButton', arrow_layout('right'))

 def __place_widgets(s):
 # 标头框架及其小部件
 Input_judgment_num = s.master.register(s.Input_judgment) # 需要将函数包装一下,必要的
 hframe = ttk.Frame(s.G_Frame)
 gframe = ttk.Frame(s.G_Frame)
 bframe = ttk.Frame(s.G_Frame)
 hframe.pack(in_=s.G_Frame, side='top', pady=5, anchor='center')
 gframe.pack(in_=s.G_Frame, fill=tk.X, pady=5)
 bframe.pack(in_=s.G_Frame, side='bottom', pady=5)
 lbtn = ttk.Button(hframe, style='L.TButton', command=s._prev_month)
 lbtn.grid(in_=hframe, column=0, row=0, padx=12)
 rbtn = ttk.Button(hframe, style='R.TButton', command=s._next_month)
 rbtn.grid(in_=hframe, column=5, row=0, padx=12)
 s.CB_year = ttk.Combobox(hframe, width = 5, values = [str(year) for year in range(datetime.now().year, datetime.now().year-11,-1)], validate = 'key', validatecommand = (Input_judgment_num, '%P'))
 s.CB_year.current(0)
 s.CB_year.grid(in_=hframe, column=1, row=0)
 s.CB_year.bind('', lambda event:s._update(event, True))
 s.CB_year.bind("<>", s._update)
 tk.Label(hframe, text = '年', justify = 'left').grid(in_=hframe, column=2, row=0, padx=(0,5))
 s.CB_month = ttk.Combobox(hframe, width = 3, values = ['%02d' % month for month in range(1,13)], state = 'readonly')
 s.CB_month.current(datetime.now().month - 1)
 s.CB_month.grid(in_=hframe, column=3, row=0)
 s.CB_month.bind("<>", s._update)
 tk.Label(hframe, text = '月', justify = 'left').grid(in_=hframe, column=4, row=0)
 # 日历部件
 s._calendar = ttk.Treeview(gframe, show='', selectmode='none', height=7)
 s._calendar.pack(expand=1, fill='both', side='bottom', padx=5)
 ttk.Button(bframe, text = "确 定", width = 6, command = lambda: s._exit(True)).grid(row = 0, column = 0, sticky = 'ns', padx = 20)
 ttk.Button(bframe, text = "取 消", width = 6, command = s._exit).grid(row = 0, column = 1, sticky = 'ne', padx = 20)
 tk.Frame(s.G_Frame, bg = '#565656').place(x = 0, y = 0, relx = 0, rely = 0, relwidth = 1, relheigh = 2/200)
 tk.Frame(s.G_Frame, bg = '#565656').place(x = 0, y = 0, relx = 0, rely = 198/200, relwidth = 1, relheigh = 2/200)
 tk.Frame(s.G_Frame, bg = '#565656').place(x = 0, y = 0, relx = 0, rely = 0, relwidth = 2/200, relheigh = 1)
 tk.Frame(s.G_Frame, bg = '#565656').place(x = 0, y = 0, relx = 198/200, rely = 0, relwidth = 2/200, relheigh = 1)

 def __config_calendar(s):
 # cols = s._cal.formatweekheader(3).split()
 cols = ['日','一','二','三','四','五','六']
 s._calendar['columns'] = cols
 s._calendar.tag_configure('header', background='grey90')
 s._calendar.insert('', 'end', values=cols, tag='header')
 # 调整其列宽
 font = tkFont.Font()
 maxwidth = max(font.measure(col) for col in cols)
 for col in cols:
 s._calendar.column(col, width=maxwidth, minwidth=maxwidth,
 anchor='center')

 def __setup_selection(s, sel_bg, sel_fg):
 def __canvas_forget(evt):
 canvas.place_forget()
 s._selection = None

 s._font = tkFont.Font()
 s._canvas = canvas = tk.Canvas(s._calendar, background=sel_bg, borderwidth=0, highlightthickness=0)
 canvas.text = canvas.create_text(0, 0, fill=sel_fg, anchor='w')
 canvas.bind('', __canvas_forget)
 s._calendar.bind('', __canvas_forget)
 s._calendar.bind('', s._pressed)

 def _build_calendar(s):
 year, month = s._date.year, s._date.month
 header = s._cal.formatmonthname(year, month, 0)
 # 更新日历显示的日期
 cal = s._cal.monthdayscalendar(year, month)
 for indx, item in enumerate(s._items):
 week = cal[indx] if indx < len(cal) else []
 fmt_week = [('%02d' % day) if day else '' for day in week]
 s._calendar.item(item, values=fmt_week)

 def _show_select(s, text, bbox):
 x, y, width, height = bbox
 textw = s._font.measure(text)
 canvas = s._canvas
 canvas.configure(width = width, height = height)
 canvas.coords(canvas.text, (width - textw)/2, height / 2 - 1)
 canvas.itemconfigure(canvas.text, text=text)
 canvas.place(in_=s._calendar, x=x, y=y)

 def _pressed(s, evt = None, item = None, column = None, widget = None):
 """在日历的某个地方点击。"""
 if not item:
 x, y, widget = evt.x, evt.y, evt.widget
 item = widget.identify_row(y)
 column = widget.identify_column(x)
 if not column or not item in s._items:
 # 在工作日行中单击或仅在列外单击。
 return
 item_values = widget.item(item)['values']
 if not len(item_values): # 这个月的行是空的。
 return
 text = item_values[int(column[1]) - 1]
 if not text: 
 return
 bbox = widget.bbox(item, column)
 if not bbox: # 日历尚不可见
 s.master.after(20, lambda : s._pressed(item = item, column = column, widget = widget))
 return
 text = '%02d' % text
 s._selection = (text, item, column)
 s._show_select(text, bbox)

 def _prev_month(s):
 """更新日历以显示前一个月。"""
 s._canvas.place_forget()
 s._selection = None
 s._date = s._date - timedelta(days=1)
 s._date = datetime(s._date.year, s._date.month, 1)
 s.CB_year.set(s._date.year)
 s.CB_month.set(s._date.month)
 s._update()

 def _next_month(s):
 """更新日历以显示下一个月。"""
 s._canvas.place_forget()
 s._selection = None

 year, month = s._date.year, s._date.month
 s._date = s._date + timedelta(
 days=calendar.monthrange(year, month)[1] + 1)
 s._date = datetime(s._date.year, s._date.month, 1)
 s.CB_year.set(s._date.year)
 s.CB_month.set(s._date.month)
 s._update()

 def _update(s, event = None, key = None):
 """刷新界面"""
 if key and event.keysym != 'Return': return
 year = int(s.CB_year.get())
 month = int(s.CB_month.get())
 if year == 0 or year > 9999: return
 s._canvas.place_forget()
 s._date = datetime(year, month, 1)
 s._build_calendar() # 重建日历
 if year == datetime.now().year and month == datetime.now().month:
 day = datetime.now().day
 for _item, day_list in enumerate(s._cal.monthdayscalendar(year, month)):
 if day in day_list:
  item = 'I00' + str(_item + 2)
  column = '#' + str(day_list.index(day)+1)
  s.master.after(100, lambda :s._pressed(item = item, column = column, widget = s._calendar))

 def _exit(s, confirm = False):
 if not confirm: s._selection = None
 s.master.destroy()

 def _main_judge(s):
 """判断窗口是否在最顶层"""
 try:
 if s.master.focus_displayof() == None or 'toplevel' not in str(s.master.focus_displayof()): s._exit()
 else: s.master.after(10, s._main_judge)
 except:
 s.master.after(10, s._main_judge)

 def selection(s):
 """返回表示当前选定日期的日期时间。"""
 if not s._selection: return None
 year, month = s._date.year, s._date.month
 return str(datetime(year, month, int(s._selection[0])))[:10]

 def Input_judgment(s, content):
 """输入判断"""
 if content.isdigit() or content == "":
 return True
 else:
 return False

如何使用这个类呢?直接调用即可,什么参数都不用。如图

直接调用这个类,就出现了一个选择器

Python tkinter实现日期选择器_第1张图片

其实你也可以用参数,比如Calendar(100,100),这个参数是调整选择器的坐标位置的,问题是没啥用,没有参数选择器就出现在了屏幕的正中央,凑合用吧。

显然,仅仅这样是不足以实用的,于是我又封装了一个datepicker类,需要调用Calendar类

class datepicker:
 def __init__(s,window,axes): #窗口对象 坐标
 s.window=window
 s.frame=tk.Frame(s.window,padx=5)
 s.frame.grid(row=axes[0],column=axes[1])
 s.start_date=tk.StringVar() #开始日期
 s.end_date=tk.StringVar() #结束日期
 s.bt1=tk.Button(s.frame,text='开始',command=lambda:s.getdate('start')) #开始按钮
 s.bt1.grid(row=0,column=0)
 s.ent1=tk.Entry(s.frame,textvariable=s.start_date) #开始输入框
 s.ent1.grid(row=0,column=1)
 s.bt2=tk.Button(s.frame,text='结束',command=lambda:s.getdate('end'))
 s.bt2.grid(row=0,column=2)
 s.ent2=tk.Entry(s.frame,textvariable=s.end_date)
 s.ent2.grid(row=0,column=3)
 
 def getdate(s,type): #获取选择的日期
 for date in [Calendar().selection()]:
 if date:
 if(type=='start'): #如果是开始按钮,就赋值给开始日期
  s.start_date.set(date)
 elif(type=='end'):
  s.end_date.set(date)
#执行
if __name__ == '__main__':
 window=tk.Tk()
 window.wm_attributes('-topmost',True) #窗口置顶
 tk.Label(window,text='日期段一:').grid(row=0,column=0)
 obj=datepicker(window,(0,1)) #初始化类为对象
 startstamp1=obj.start_date.get() #获取开始时期
 endstamp1=obj.end_date.get()

 tk.Label(window,text='日期段二:').grid(row=1,column=0)
 obj=datepicker(window,(1,1))
 startstamp2=obj.start_date.get()
 endstamp2=obj.end_date.get()
 window.mainloop()

执行效果如图:

Python tkinter实现日期选择器_第2张图片

目的是搞成一个日期段的效果。所以datepicker类里面包括了一个开始按钮,开始输入框,结束按钮,结束输入框。并把这四个

组件放在了一个frame里面。所以使用的时候,先建立一个window,然后把window以及frame的位置坐标传入datepicker类即可。比如datepicker(window,(1,1))

以上就是本文的全部内容,希望对大家的学习有所帮助,也希望大家多多支持脚本之家。

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