Scatter/Gather I/O

Scatter/Gather I/O,翻译过来是分散/聚集 I/O(又称为Vectored I/O)。是一种可以单次调用中对多个缓冲区进行输入/输出的方式,可以把多个缓冲区数据一次写到数据流中,也可以把一个数据流读取到多个缓冲区

使用Scatter/Gather I/O的主要原因是为了高效和方便,可以在一次I/O操作中处理多个Buffer的读写

各种操作系统都提供了Scatter/Gather I/O的函数库,可以很方便的调用。对于一些高级语言,也是有相应实现的。

Java中的实现

Java中也提供了Scatter/Gather I/O的实现,对应的接口为java.nio.channels.ScatteringByteChannel/java.nio.channels.GatheringByteChannel,都在java的nio包下。

先来看一下接口定义:

public interface ScatteringByteChannel extends ReadableByteChannel
{
    public long read (ByteBuffer [] dsts) throws IOException;
    public long read (ByteBuffer [] dsts, int offset, int length) throws IOException;
}
 
public interface GatheringByteChannel extends WritableByteChannel
{
    public long write(ByteBuffer[] srcs) throws IOException;
    public long write(ByteBuffer[] srcs, int offset, int length) throws IOException;
}

使用也很简单,因为FileChannel/`SocketChanel是实现了这两个接口的,也就是说使用FileChannel/SocketChanel`时可以直接使用Scatter/Gather I/O

Java中的使用例子

下面的例子中创建了两个ByteBuyffer,一个ByteBuffer存储一个随机数,另一个ByteBuffer存储一个随机字符串。

第一步,使用GatheringByteChannel`将两个ByteBuffer中的数据写入至`FileChannel

第二部,使用ScatteringByteChannel将FileChannel中的数据读取至两个ByteBuffer中

第三步,验证读取后的数据是否匹配

示例代码来源:https://howtodoinjava.com/java/nio/nio-scatter-gather-vectored-io/

import java.io.FileInputStream;
import java.io.FileOutputStream;
import java.nio.ByteBuffer;
import java.nio.channels.FileChannel;
import java.nio.channels.GatheringByteChannel;
import java.nio.channels.ScatteringByteChannel;
 
public class ScatteringAndGatheringIOExample 
{
    public static void main(String params[]) 
    {
        String data = "Scattering and Gathering example shown in howtodoinjava.com";
         
        gatherBytes(data);
        scatterBytes();
    }
 
    /*
     * gatherBytes() reads bytes from different buffers and writes to file
     * channel. Note that it uses a single write for both the buffers.
     */
    public static void gatherBytes(String data) 
    {
        //First Buffer holds a random number
        ByteBuffer bufferOne = ByteBuffer.allocate(4);
         
        //Second Buffer holds data we want to write
        ByteBuffer buffer2 = ByteBuffer.allocate(200);
 
        //Writing Data sets to Buffer
        bufferOne.asIntBuffer().put(13);
        buffer2.asCharBuffer().put(data);
         
        //Calls FileOutputStream(file).getChannel()
        GatheringByteChannel gatherer = createChannelInstance("test.txt", true);
 
        //Write data to file
        try
        {
            gatherer.write(new ByteBuffer[] { bufferOne, buffer2 });
        } 
        catch (Exception e) 
        {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }
 
    /*
     * scatterBytes() read bytes from a file channel into a set of buffers. Note that
     * it uses a single read for both the buffers.
     */
    public static void scatterBytes() 
    {
        //First Buffer holds a random number
        ByteBuffer bufferOne = ByteBuffer.allocate(4);
         
        //Second Buffer holds data we want to write
        ByteBuffer bufferTwo = ByteBuffer.allocate(200);
 
        //Calls FileInputStream(file).getChannel()
        ScatteringByteChannel scatterer = createChannelInstance("test.txt", false);
         
        try
        {
            //Reading from the channel
            scatterer.read(new ByteBuffer[] { bufferOne, bufferTwo });
        } 
        catch (Exception e) 
        {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
 
         
        //Read the buffers seperately
        bufferOne.rewind();
        bufferTwo.rewind();
 
        int bufferOneContent = bufferOne.asIntBuffer().get();
        String bufferTwoContent = bufferTwo.asCharBuffer().toString();
         
        //Verify the content
        System.out.println(bufferOneContent);
        System.out.println(bufferTwoContent);
    }
     
     
    public static FileChannel createChannelInstance(String file, boolean isOutput) 
    {
        FileChannel fc = null;
        try
        {
            if (isOutput) {
                fc = new FileOutputStream(file).getChannel();
            } else {
                fc = new FileInputStream(file).getChannel();
            }
        } 
        catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        return fc;
    }
}

Netty 的实现??

Netty中提供了CompositeByteBuf,虽然看起来类似Scatter/Gather I/O,但和JDK自带的完全不是一回事,Netty只是在Java层面对Buffer进行了组合

参考

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