Python爬虫代理池搭建的方法步骤

一、为什么要搭建爬虫代理池

在众多的网站防爬措施中,有一种是根据ip的访问频率进行限制,即在某一时间段内,当某个ip的访问次数达到一定的阀值时,该ip就会被拉黑、在一段时间内禁止访问。

应对的方法有两种:

1. 降低爬虫的爬取频率,避免IP被限制访问,缺点显而易见:会大大降低爬取的效率。

2. 搭建一个IP代理池,使用不同的IP轮流进行爬取。

二、搭建思路

1、从代理网站(如:西刺代理、快代理、云代理、无忧代理)爬取代理IP;

2、验证代理IP的可用性(使用代理IP去请求指定URL,根据响应验证代理IP是否生效);

3、将可用的代理IP保存到数据库;

常用代理网站:西刺代理 、云代理 、IP海 、无忧代理 、飞蚁代理 、快代理

三、代码实现

工程结构如下:

Python爬虫代理池搭建的方法步骤_第1张图片

ipproxy.py

IPProxy代理类定义了要爬取的IP代理的字段信息和一些基础方法。

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
import re
import time
from settings import PROXY_URL_FORMATTER

schema_pattern = re.compile(r'http|https$', re.I)
ip_pattern = re.compile(r'^([0-9]{1,3}.){3}[0-9]{1,3}$', re.I)
port_pattern = re.compile(r'^[0-9]{2,5}$', re.I)

class IPProxy:
  '''
  {
    "schema": "http", # 代理的类型
    "ip": "127.0.0.1", # 代理的IP地址
    "port": "8050", # 代理的端口号
    "used_total": 11, # 代理的使用次数
    "success_times": 5, # 代理请求成功的次数
    "continuous_failed": 3, # 使用代理发送请求,连续失败的次数
    "created_time": "2018-05-02" # 代理的爬取时间
  }
  '''

  def __init__(self, schema, ip, port, used_total=0, success_times=0, continuous_failed=0,
         created_time=None):
    """Initialize the proxy instance"""
    if schema == "" or schema is None:
      schema = "http"
    self.schema = schema.lower()
    self.ip = ip
    self.port = port
    self.used_total = used_total
    self.success_times = success_times
    self.continuous_failed = continuous_failed
    if created_time is None:
      created_time = time.strftime('%Y-%m-%d', time.localtime(time.time()))
    self.created_time = created_time

  def _get_url(self):
    ''' Return the proxy url'''
    return PROXY_URL_FORMATTER % {'schema': self.schema, 'ip': self.ip, 'port': self.port}

  def _check_format(self):
    ''' Return True if the proxy fields are well-formed,otherwise return False'''
    if self.schema is not None and self.ip is not None and self.port is not None:
      if schema_pattern.match(self.schema) and ip_pattern.match(self.ip) and port_pattern.match(self.port):
        return True
    return False

  def _is_https(self):
    ''' Return True if the proxy is https,otherwise return False'''
    return self.schema == 'https'

  def _update(self, successed=False):
    ''' Update proxy based on the result of the request's response'''
    self.used_total = self.used_total + 1
    if successed:
      self.continuous_failed = 0
      self.success_times = self.success_times + 1
    else:
      print(self.continuous_failed)
      self.continuous_failed = self.continuous_failed + 1

if __name__ == '__main__':
  proxy = IPProxy('HTTPS', '192.168.2.25', "8080")
  print(proxy._get_url())
  print(proxy._check_format())
  print(proxy._is_https())

settings.py

settings.py中汇聚了工程所需要的配置信息。

# 指定Redis的主机名和端口
REDIS_HOST = 'localhost'
REDIS_PORT = 6379

# 代理保存到Redis key 格式化字符串
PROXIES_REDIS_FORMATTER = 'proxies::{}'
# 已经存在的HTTP代理和HTTPS代理集合
PROXIES_REDIS_EXISTED = 'proxies::existed'

# 最多连续失败几次
MAX_CONTINUOUS_TIMES = 3
# 代理地址的格式化字符串
PROXY_URL_FORMATTER = '%(schema)s://%(ip)s:%(port)s'

USER_AGENT_LIST = [
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.1 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/22.0.1207.1 Safari/537.1",
  "Mozilla/5.0 (X11; CrOS i686 2268.111.0) AppleWebKit/536.11 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/20.0.1132.57 Safari/536.11",
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/536.6 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/20.0.1092.0 Safari/536.6",
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2) AppleWebKit/536.6 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/20.0.1090.0 Safari/536.6",
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.1 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.77.34.5 Safari/537.1",
  "Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64) AppleWebKit/536.5 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1084.9 Safari/536.5",
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.0) AppleWebKit/536.5 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1084.36 Safari/536.5",
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1063.0 Safari/536.3",
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 5.1) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1063.0 Safari/536.3",
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_8_0) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1063.0 Safari/536.3",
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1062.0 Safari/536.3",
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1062.0 Safari/536.3",
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1061.1 Safari/536.3",
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1061.1 Safari/536.3",
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1061.1 Safari/536.3",
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1061.0 Safari/536.3",
  "Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64) AppleWebKit/535.24 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1055.1 Safari/535.24",
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2; WOW64) AppleWebKit/535.24 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1055.1 Safari/535.24"
]
# 爬取到的代理保存前先检验是否可用,默认True
PROXY_CHECK_BEFOREADD = True
# 检验代理可用性的请求地址,支持多个
PROXY_CHECK_URLS = {'https':['https://icanhazip.com'],'http':['http://icanhazip.com']}

proxy_util.py

proxy_util.py 中主要定义了一些实用方法,例如:proxy_to_dict(proxy)用来将IPProxy代理实例转换成字典;proxy_from_dict(d)用来将字典转换为IPProxy实例;request_page()用来发送请求;_is_proxy_available()用来校验代理IP是否可用。

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
import random
import logging
import requests
from ipproxy import IPProxy
from settings import USER_AGENT_LIST, PROXY_CHECK_URLS

# Setting logger output format
logging.basicConfig(level=logging.INFO,
          format='[%(asctime)-15s] [%(levelname)8s] [%(name)10s ] - %(message)s (%(filename)s:%(lineno)s)',
          datefmt='%Y-%m-%d %T'
          )
logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)


def proxy_to_dict(proxy):
  d = {
    "schema": proxy.schema,
    "ip": proxy.ip,
    "port": proxy.port,
    "used_total": proxy.used_total,
    "success_times": proxy.success_times,
    "continuous_failed": proxy.continuous_failed,
    "created_time": proxy.created_time
  }
  return d


def proxy_from_dict(d):
  return IPProxy(schema=d['schema'], ip=d['ip'], port=d['port'], used_total=d['used_total'],
          success_times=d['success_times'], continuous_failed=d['continuous_failed'],
          created_time=d['created_time'])


# Truncate header and tailer blanks
def strip(data):
  if data is not None:
    return data.strip()
  return data


base_headers = {
  'Accept-Encoding': 'gzip, deflate, br',
  'Accept-Language': 'en-US,en;q=0.9,zh-CN;q=0.8,zh;q=0.7'
}


def request_page(url, options={}, encoding='utf-8'):
  """send a request,get response"""
  headers = dict(base_headers, **options)
  if 'User-Agent' not in headers.keys():
    headers['User-Agent'] = random.choice(USER_AGENT_LIST)

  logger.info('正在抓取: ' + url)
  try:
    response = requests.get(url, headers=headers)
    if response.status_code == 200:
      logger.info('抓取成功: ' + url)
      return response.content.decode(encoding=encoding)
  except ConnectionError:
    logger.error('抓取失败' + url)
    return None

def _is_proxy_available(proxy, options={}):
  """Check whether the Proxy is available or not"""
  headers = dict(base_headers, **options)
  if 'User-Agent' not in headers.keys():
    headers['User-Agent'] = random.choice(USER_AGENT_LIST)
  proxies = {proxy.schema: proxy._get_url()}
  check_urls = PROXY_CHECK_URLS[proxy.schema]
  for url in check_urls:
    try:
      response = requests.get(url=url, proxies=proxies, headers=headers, timeout=5)
    except BaseException:
      logger.info("< " + url + " > 验证代理 < " + proxy._get_url() + " > 结果: 不可用 ")
    else:
      if response.status_code == 200:
        logger.info("< " + url + " > 验证代理 < " + proxy._get_url() + " > 结果: 可用 ")
        return True
      else:
        logger.info("< " + url + " > 验证代理 < " + proxy._get_url() + " > 结果: 不可用 ")
  return False


if __name__ == '__main__':
  headers = dict(base_headers)
  if 'User-Agent' not in headers.keys():
    headers['User-Agent'] = random.choice(USER_AGENT_LIST)
  proxies = {"https": "https://163.125.255.154:9797"}
  response = requests.get("https://www.baidu.com", headers=headers, proxies=proxies, timeout=3)
  print(response.content)

proxy_queue.py

代理队列用来保存并对外提供 IP代理,不同的代理队列内代理IP的保存和提取策略可以不同。在这里, BaseQueue 是所有代理队列的基类,其中声明了所有代理队列都需要实现的保存代理IP、提取代理IP、查看代理IP数量等接口。示例的 FifoQueue 是一个先进先出队列,底层使用 Redis 列表实现,为了确保同一个代理IP只能被放入队列一次,这里使用了一个Redis proxies::existed 集合进行入队前重复校验。

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from proxy_util import logger
import json
import redis
from ipproxy import IPProxy
from proxy_util import proxy_to_dict, proxy_from_dict, _is_proxy_available
from settings import PROXIES_REDIS_EXISTED, PROXIES_REDIS_FORMATTER, MAX_CONTINUOUS_TIMES, PROXY_CHECK_BEFOREADD

"""
Proxy Queue Base Class
"""
class BaseQueue(object):

  def __init__(self, server):
    """Initialize the proxy queue instance

    Parameters
    ----------
    server : StrictRedis
      Redis client instance
    """
    self.server = server

  def _serialize_proxy(self, proxy):
    """Serialize proxy instance"""
    return proxy_to_dict(proxy)

  def _deserialize_proxy(self, serialized_proxy):
    """deserialize proxy instance"""
    return proxy_from_dict(eval(serialized_proxy))

  def __len__(self, schema='http'):
    """Return the length of the queue"""
    raise NotImplementedError

  def push(self, proxy, need_check):
    """Push a proxy"""
    raise NotImplementedError

  def pop(self, schema='http', timeout=0):
    """Pop a proxy"""
    raise NotImplementedError


class FifoQueue(BaseQueue):
  """First in first out queue"""

  def __len__(self, schema='http'):
    """Return the length of the queue"""
    return self.server.llen(PROXIES_REDIS_FORMATTER.format(schema))

  def push(self, proxy, need_check=PROXY_CHECK_BEFOREADD):
    """Push a proxy"""
    if need_check and not _is_proxy_available(proxy):
      return
    elif proxy.continuous_failed < MAX_CONTINUOUS_TIMES and not self._is_existed(proxy):
      key = PROXIES_REDIS_FORMATTER.format(proxy.schema)
      self.server.rpush(key, json.dumps(self._serialize_proxy(proxy),ensure_ascii=False))

  def pop(self, schema='http', timeout=0):
    """Pop a proxy"""
    if timeout > 0:
      p = self.server.blpop(PROXIES_REDIS_FORMATTER.format(schema.lower()), timeout)
      if isinstance(p, tuple):
        p = p[1]
    else:
      p = self.server.lpop(PROXIES_REDIS_FORMATTER.format(schema.lower()))
    if p:
      p = self._deserialize_proxy(p)
      self.server.srem(PROXIES_REDIS_EXISTED, p._get_url())
      return p

  def _is_existed(self, proxy):
    added = self.server.sadd(PROXIES_REDIS_EXISTED, proxy._get_url())
    return added == 0


if __name__ == '__main__':
  r = redis.StrictRedis(host='localhost', port=6379)
  queue = FifoQueue(r)
  proxy = IPProxy('http', '218.66.253.144', '80')
  queue.push(proxy)
  proxy = queue.pop(schema='http')
  print(proxy._get_url())

proxy_crawlers.py

ProxyBaseCrawler 是所有代理爬虫的基类,其中只定义了一个 _start_crawl() 方法用来从搜集到的代理网站爬取代理IP。

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from lxml import etree
from ipproxy import IPProxy
from proxy_util import strip, request_page, logger


class ProxyBaseCrawler(object):

  def __init__(self, queue=None, website=None, urls=[]):
    self.queue = queue
    self.website = website
    self.urls = urls

  def _start_crawl(self):
    raise NotImplementedError


class KuaiDailiCrawler(ProxyBaseCrawler): # 快代理
  def _start_crawl(self):
    for url_dict in self.urls:
      logger.info("开始爬取 [ " + self.website + " ] :::> [ " + url_dict['type'] + " ]")
      has_more = True
      url = None
      while has_more:
        if 'page' in url_dict.keys() and str.find(url_dict['url'], '{}') != -1:
          url = url_dict['url'].format(str(url_dict['page']))
          url_dict['page'] = url_dict['page'] + 1
        else:
          url = url_dict['url']
          has_more = False
        html = etree.HTML(request_page(url))
        tr_list = html.xpath("//table[@class='table table-bordered table-striped']/tbody/tr")
        for tr in tr_list:
          ip = tr.xpath("./td[@data-title='IP']/text()")[0] if len(
            tr.xpath("./td[@data-title='IP']/text()")) else None
          port = tr.xpath("./td[@data-title='PORT']/text()")[0] if len(
            tr.xpath("./td[@data-title='PORT']/text()")) else None
          schema = tr.xpath("./td[@data-title='类型']/text()")[0] if len(
            tr.xpath("./td[@data-title='类型']/text()")) else None
          proxy = IPProxy(schema=strip(schema), ip=strip(ip), port=strip(port))
          if proxy._check_format():
            self.queue.push(proxy)
        if tr_list is None:
          has_more = False


class FeiyiDailiCrawler(ProxyBaseCrawler): # 飞蚁代理
  def _start_crawl(self):
    for url_dict in self.urls:
      logger.info("开始爬取 [ " + self.website + " ] :::> [ " + url_dict['type'] + " ]")
      has_more = True
      url = None
      while has_more:
        if 'page' in url_dict.keys() and str.find(url_dict['url'], '{}') != -1:
          url = url_dict['url'].format(str(url_dict['page']))
          url_dict['page'] = url_dict['page'] + 1
        else:
          url = url_dict['url']
          has_more = False
        html = etree.HTML(request_page(url))
        tr_list = html.xpath("//div[@id='main-content']//table/tr[position()>1]")
        for tr in tr_list:
          ip = tr.xpath("./td[1]/text()")[0] if len(tr.xpath("./td[1]/text()")) else None
          port = tr.xpath("./td[2]/text()")[0] if len(tr.xpath("./td[2]/text()")) else None
          schema = tr.xpath("./td[4]/text()")[0] if len(tr.xpath("./td[4]/text()")) else None
          proxy = IPProxy(schema=strip(schema), ip=strip(ip), port=strip(port))
          if proxy._check_format():
            self.queue.push(proxy)
        if tr_list is None:
          has_more = False


class WuyouDailiCrawler(ProxyBaseCrawler): # 无忧代理
  def _start_crawl(self):
    for url_dict in self.urls:
      logger.info("开始爬取 [ " + self.website + " ] :::> [ " + url_dict['type'] + " ]")
      has_more = True
      url = None
      while has_more:
        if 'page' in url_dict.keys() and str.find(url_dict['url'], '{}') != -1:
          url = url_dict['url'].format(str(url_dict['page']))
          url_dict['page'] = url_dict['page'] + 1
        else:
          url = url_dict['url']
          has_more = False
        html = etree.HTML(request_page(url))
        ul_list = html.xpath("//div[@class='wlist'][2]//ul[@class='l2']")
        for ul in ul_list:
          ip = ul.xpath("./span[1]/li/text()")[0] if len(ul.xpath("./span[1]/li/text()")) else None
          port = ul.xpath("./span[2]/li/text()")[0] if len(ul.xpath("./span[2]/li/text()")) else None
          schema = ul.xpath("./span[4]/li/text()")[0] if len(ul.xpath("./span[4]/li/text()")) else None
          proxy = IPProxy(schema=strip(schema), ip=strip(ip), port=strip(port))
          if proxy._check_format():
            self.queue.push(proxy)
        if ul_list is None:
          has_more = False


class IPhaiDailiCrawler(ProxyBaseCrawler): # IP海代理
  def _start_crawl(self):
    for url_dict in self.urls:
      logger.info("开始爬取 [ " + self.website + " ] :::> [ " + url_dict['type'] + " ]")
      has_more = True
      url = None
      while has_more:
        if 'page' in url_dict.keys() and str.find(url_dict['url'], '{}') != -1:
          url = url_dict['url'].format(str(url_dict['page']))
          url_dict['page'] = url_dict['page'] + 1
        else:
          url = url_dict['url']
          has_more = False
        html = etree.HTML(request_page(url))
        tr_list = html.xpath("//table//tr[position()>1]")
        for tr in tr_list:
          ip = tr.xpath("./td[1]/text()")[0] if len(tr.xpath("./td[1]/text()")) else None
          port = tr.xpath("./td[2]/text()")[0] if len(tr.xpath("./td[2]/text()")) else None
          schema = tr.xpath("./td[4]/text()")[0] if len(tr.xpath("./td[4]/text()")) else None
          proxy = IPProxy(schema=strip(schema), ip=strip(ip), port=strip(port))
          if proxy._check_format():
            self.queue.push(proxy)
        if tr_list is None:
          has_more = False


class YunDailiCrawler(ProxyBaseCrawler): # 云代理
  def _start_crawl(self):
    for url_dict in self.urls:
      logger.info("开始爬取 [ " + self.website + " ] :::> [ " + url_dict['type'] + " ]")
      has_more = True
      url = None
      while has_more:
        if 'page' in url_dict.keys() and str.find(url_dict['url'], '{}') != -1:
          url = url_dict['url'].format(str(url_dict['page']))
          url_dict['page'] = url_dict['page'] + 1
        else:
          url = url_dict['url']
          has_more = False
        html = etree.HTML(request_page(url, encoding='gbk'))
        tr_list = html.xpath("//table/tbody/tr")
        for tr in tr_list:
          ip = tr.xpath("./td[1]/text()")[0] if len(tr.xpath("./td[1]/text()")) else None
          port = tr.xpath("./td[2]/text()")[0] if len(tr.xpath("./td[2]/text()")) else None
          schema = tr.xpath("./td[4]/text()")[0] if len(tr.xpath("./td[4]/text()")) else None
          proxy = IPProxy(schema=strip(schema), ip=strip(ip), port=strip(port))
          if proxy._check_format():
            self.queue.push(proxy)
        if tr_list is None:
          has_more = False


class XiCiDailiCrawler(ProxyBaseCrawler): # 西刺代理
  def _start_crawl(self):
    for url_dict in self.urls:
      logger.info("开始爬取 [ " + self.website + " ] :::> [ " + url_dict['type'] + " ]")
      has_more = True
      url = None
      while has_more:
        if 'page' in url_dict.keys() and str.find(url_dict['url'], '{}') != -1:
          url = url_dict['url'].format(str(url_dict['page']))
          url_dict['page'] = url_dict['page'] + 1
        else:
          url = url_dict['url']
          has_more = False
        html = etree.HTML(request_page(url))
        tr_list = html.xpath("//table[@id='ip_list']//tr[@class!='subtitle']")
        for tr in tr_list:
          ip = tr.xpath("./td[2]/text()")[0] if len(tr.xpath("./td[2]/text()")) else None
          port = tr.xpath("./td[3]/text()")[0] if len(tr.xpath("./td[3]/text()")) else None
          schema = tr.xpath("./td[6]/text()")[0] if len(tr.xpath("./td[6]/text()")) else None
          if schema.lower() == "http" or schema.lower() == "https":
            proxy = IPProxy(schema=strip(schema), ip=strip(ip), port=strip(port))
            if proxy._check_format():
              self.queue.push(proxy)
        if tr_list is None:
          has_more = False

run.py

通过run.py启动各个代理网站爬虫。

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
import redis
from proxy_queue import FifoQueue
from settings import REDIS_HOST, REDIS_PORT
from proxy_crawlers import WuyouDailiCrawler, FeiyiDailiCrawler, KuaiDailiCrawler, IPhaiDailiCrawler, YunDailiCrawler, \
  XiCiDailiCrawler

r = redis.StrictRedis(host=REDIS_HOST, port=REDIS_PORT)
fifo_queue = FifoQueue(r)


def run_kuai():
  kuaidailiCrawler = KuaiDailiCrawler(queue=fifo_queue, website='快代理[国内高匿]',
                    urls=[{'url': 'https://www.kuaidaili.com/free/inha/{}/', 'type': '国内高匿',
                        'page': 1},
                       {'url': 'https://www.kuaidaili.com/free/intr/{}/', 'type': '国内普通',
                        'page': 1}])
  kuaidailiCrawler._start_crawl()


def run_feiyi():
  feiyidailiCrawler = FeiyiDailiCrawler(queue=fifo_queue, website='飞蚁代理',
                     urls=[{'url': 'http://www.feiyiproxy.com/?page_id=1457', 'type': '首页推荐'}])
  feiyidailiCrawler._start_crawl()


def run_wuyou():
  wuyoudailiCrawler = WuyouDailiCrawler(queue=fifo_queue, website='无忧代理',
                     urls=[{'url': 'http://www.data5u.com/free/index.html', 'type': '首页推荐'},
                        {'url': 'http://www.data5u.com/free/gngn/index.shtml', 'type': '国内高匿'},
                        {'url': 'http://www.data5u.com/free/gnpt/index.shtml', 'type': '国内普通'}])
  wuyoudailiCrawler._start_crawl()


def run_iphai():
  crawler = IPhaiDailiCrawler(queue=fifo_queue, website='IP海代理',
                urls=[{'url': 'http://www.iphai.com/free/ng', 'type': '国内高匿'},
                   {'url': 'http://www.iphai.com/free/np', 'type': '国内普通'},
                   {'url': 'http://www.iphai.com/free/wg', 'type': '国外高匿'},
                   {'url': 'http://www.iphai.com/free/wp', 'type': '国外普通'}])
  crawler._start_crawl()


def run_yun():
  crawler = YunDailiCrawler(queue=fifo_queue, website='云代理',
               urls=[{'url': 'http://www.ip3366.net/free/?stype=1&page={}', 'type': '国内高匿', 'page': 1},
                  {'url': 'http://www.ip3366.net/free/?stype=2&page={}', 'type': '国内普通', 'page': 1},
                  {'url': 'http://www.ip3366.net/free/?stype=3&page={}', 'type': '国外高匿', 'page': 1},
                  {'url': 'http://www.ip3366.net/free/?stype=4&page={}', 'type': '国外普通', 'page': 1}])
  crawler._start_crawl()


def run_xici():
  crawler = XiCiDailiCrawler(queue=fifo_queue, website='西刺代理',
                urls=[{'url': 'https://www.xicidaili.com/', 'type': '首页推荐'},
                   {'url': 'https://www.xicidaili.com/nn/{}', 'type': '国内高匿', 'page': 1},
                   {'url': 'https://www.xicidaili.com/nt/{}', 'type': '国内普通', 'page': 1},
                   {'url': 'https://www.xicidaili.com/wn/{}', 'type': '国外高匿', 'page': 1},
                   {'url': 'https://www.xicidaili.com/wt/{}', 'type': '国外普通', 'page': 1}])
  crawler._start_crawl()


if __name__ == '__main__':
  run_xici()
  run_iphai()
  run_kuai()
  run_feiyi()
  run_yun()
  run_wuyou()

爬取西刺代理时,后台日志示例如下:

Redis数据库中爬取到的代理IP的数据结构如下:

四、代理测试

 接下来,使用爬取好的代理来请求 http://icanhazip.com 进行测试,代码如下:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
import random
import requests
from proxy_util import logger
from run import fifo_queue
from settings import USER_AGENT_LIST
from proxy_util import base_headers

# 测试地址
url = 'http://icanhazip.com'

# 获取代理
proxy = fifo_queue.pop(schema='http')
proxies = {proxy.schema:proxy._get_url()}

# 构造请求头
headers = dict(base_headers)
if 'User-Agent' not in headers.keys():
  headers['User-Agent'] = random.choice(USER_AGENT_LIST)

response = None
successed = False
try:
  response = requests.get(url,headers=headers,proxies = proxies,timeout=5)
except BaseException:
  logger.error("使用代理< "+proxy._get_url()+" > 请求 < "+url+" > 结果: 失败 ")
else:
  if (response.status_code == 200):
    logger.info(response.content.decode())
    successed = True
    logger.info("使用代理< " + proxy._get_url() + " > 请求 < " + url + " > 结果: 成功 ")
  else:
    logger.info(response.content.decode())
    logger.info("使用代理< " + proxy._get_url() + " > 请求 < " + url + " > 结果: 失败 ")

# 根据请求的响应结果更新代理
proxy._update(successed)
# 将代理返还给队列,返还时不校验可用性
fifo_queue.push(proxy,need_check=False)

使用 http://218.66.253.144:80 代理请求成功后将代理重新放回队列,并将 Redis 中该代理的 used_total 、success_times 、continuous_failed三个字段信息进行了相应的更新。

Python爬虫代理池搭建的方法步骤_第2张图片

项目地址:https://github.com/pengjunlee/ipproxy_pool.git

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