《英语语法新思维初级教程》学习笔记(三)冠词

  参考资料:

  1. 《英语语法新思维初级教程》

  2. 英语国际英标表

  

   知识点

  ▼ 限定词的是对名词起限定作用的各类词的总称,具体作用有限定名词所指的范围,对名词起泛指或特指、定量或或不定量等限定修饰。

  ▼ 冠词属于限定词(determiner),对名词起修饰作用。英语中的冠词由三个,其中两个是不定冠词a和an,一个是定冠词the(也可以认为它也是两个,同型不同音)。

out of the question // 不可能
out of question // 毫无疑问

  

  ▼ the在辅音前读[ðə],在元音前读[ði]

The lion is a dangerous animal. // 狮子是一种危险的动物。

 

  ▼ 对于定冠词the来说,可特指,也可泛指。定冠词the主要是表示特指,其次才是表示泛指。

  ▼ 对于不定冠词a/an来说,不能表示特指,主要表示泛指。不定冠词还有一个定指 / 不定指的概念。

  ▼ 不可数名词不加冠词表示泛指;复数名词不加冠词表示泛指;单数名词与定冠词the连用可表示泛指;单数名词与不定冠词a/an连用可表示泛指。 !!!!!!!

Life is education in itself.
The air in this room is stuffy. 
Water is essential for life.
Life without music wound be nothing.
Necessity is the mother of invention.
I love cheese. // 我喜欢吃奶酪。
I love the cheese. // 我喜欢这种奶酪。

   表特指的复数可数或不可数名词,它们一般都带有各种短语或从句作后置定语。“the + 复数名词”一般都是特指,但有两种特殊的情况却表示泛指:1. “the + 国籍名词”,2. “the + 形容词”。

Books fill leisure time for many people.
Put away the books on your desk.
Cigarettes are bad for your health.
Wolves are carnivorous.

The Chinese are a great people.
The wise avoid such temptations.
The emotionally disturbed and the physically and mentally handicapped need the aid of society.

  定冠词the与单数名词连用时,可表示泛指。在语气上显得比较正式或文雅,表示一个由典型的样品所代表的那个类型。   

The tiger is becoming almost extinct.
Tigers are becoming almost extinct.

Man is a social animal.
Throughout history man has had to accept the fact that all living things must die, for the very nature of life includes death.
Since time began, man has lived in fear of fire.
Man and wife.

   "a / an + 单数可数名词"可表示泛指,不定冠词a / an的泛指用法是指某一类事物中任何一个具有代表性的成员,因此可以用any来替换a / an。

  注意,a / an是泛指,不能用来表示那些不属于整个类别的特性。  

A tiger is a dangerous animal.
Any tiger is a dangerous animal.
The tiger is a dangerous animal.
Tigers are dangerous animals.

A teacher should be patient with his or her students.
A growing child needs great nourishment.
A dog makes a good pet.

The tiger is becoming almost extinct.
Tigers are becoming almost extinct.

 

  ▼ 定冠词the的特指用法。特指就是指根据说话者和听话者共有的知识,或根据上下文,可以识别的独特的某物(心知肚明的文字表现^_^)。两种特指模式: 1. 情景 / 文化特指(situational / cultural reference),2. 上下文共指(textual co-reference)。

  情景 / 文化特指必须依赖于说话者和听话者双方共有的知识:

Albert Einstein, the famous physicist.
Liu Xiang, the famous hurdler.

Tom Cruise, the famous American movie star.
David Beckham, the British soccer player.

the North Pole
the Equator
the earth
the sky
the universe
the Renaissance
the Pope

Let,s go to the library.
Can you find the page?

  上下文共指(textual co-reference)分前指(anaphoric reference)和后指(cataphoric reference):

Once upon a time, there was a little girl. The girl lived with her mother and father.
I read a great novel last week. The imagery was fantastic.
The brick house on the corner is mine.
The people who made this mess should be ashamed of themselves.
I think he is the one who can help you.

 

  ▼ 不定冠词a / an的泛指和非泛指用法。

  用作主语,表示泛指:

A tiger is a large cat.

  用作补足语,表示分类,具有描述功能:  

He is a teacher.  

  用作宾语中,具有所指功能,定指和不定指之间,有种故意不说明的感觉:

I read a great book last week.

 

  ▼ 不定冠词a / an与不可数名词的结合主要是因为特定的意义表达需要。

  “a / an + 不可数名词”,表示“一种”或“一类”。

A cheese that I like is Camembert.

  对于饮料类不可数名词,连用时表示“一杯”这种饮料。

I'd like a beer, please.

  有些连用会有特别的意思,即意思会发生改变。  

an iron // 一个电熨斗
a glass // 一个玻璃杯

 

  ▼ 不定冠词a / an与数词one

  简单意义上说,one是作为a / an的强调形式。但是用于类指的时候,不能将不定冠词a / an换成one。

  强调数量“一”时用one:

One week?

  准确表达数字:  

two kilos of flour and liter of water.

  讲故事用one: 

There is one place...

  表示度量的a / an不能换成one,有per的意思。

The rent is $100 a week.

  表示数量的固定搭配中的a不能换成one。  

a great many
a large number of
a few
a little

 

  ▼ 不定冠词a / an与this

  当说话者想强调某个人、某个地方或某件事,并使他们变得更加生动时,就可以用this代替a。

There was this guy that she was really madly in love with, that went on and ended up working on an oil rig somewhere.

  

  ▼ 用 / 不用冠词的意义区别   

in hospital // 生病住院
in the hospital // 在医院里

come out of hospital // 出院
come out of the hospital // 从医院出来

at table // 进餐
at the table // 在桌子旁边

go to bed // 睡觉
go to the bed // 到床边

in bed // 在睡觉
in the bed // 卧在床上

in / at church // 在教堂做礼拜

go to / be in town // 在城里

go to school // 上学
go to the school // 去学校

in school // 在校读书
in the school // 在学校里

out of question // 毫无疑问
out of the question // 不可能

with child // 怀孕
with a child // 带着小孩

men of age // 成年人
men of an age // 同龄人

by sea // 乘船
by the sea // 在海边

go to sea // 当海员
look out towards the sea // 眺望大海

 

  ▼ 其它使用冠词的场合

  形容词或副词的最高级形式、序数词以及only用作形容词加名词连用时

the only / best way to cope with the problem.
This is the first time I've come to Beijing.

  在乐器、乐队、合唱团和流行音乐团体前加the  

the Beatles
play the guitar
learn the piano

  the与姓氏连用

the Smiths
the Bushes

  表强调    

Just the one
it's for the two of us

 

  ▼ 其它不用冠词的场合

  表示职业、身份或头衔。表职位一般用不定冠词。在表示独一无二的头衔或身份的名此前一般不用冠词,尤其是当它们出现在补足语或同位语的位置时。

I am an engineer.

He was selected President in 1900.

  关于球类、棋类运动

play football
play chess
play tennis

  特殊名词

in nature // 在大自然中
in society // 在社会中
in space // 在宇宙太空中

Man can conquer nature // 人定胜天

in history // 在历史上
History may repeat itself // 历史可能重演

Throughout history man has to accept the fact that all living things must die.

  星期与四季 

I never get up early on Sundays.
On Tuesday

In spring / summer / autumn / winter
Winter is coming.

  昼夜的各段时间

at dawn // 黎明
at sunrise // 在日出时
at noon
at night
at daybreak
at sunset
at dusk / twilight
at midnight

  进餐

have rice for dinner
before lunch
after dinner
stay for breakfast

I was invited to dinner

have a big dinner

  交通工具  

by car
by sea
by air
on foot

  通讯工具

by radio
by telephone
by post
by mail
by satellite

  平行结构,具有副词的功效

face to face
back to back
eye to eye
shoulder to shoulder
day after day
inch by inch
from top to toe
from door to door

 

转载于:https://www.cnblogs.com/AmitX-moten/p/4887971.html

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