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HTTP深入浅出 http请求

发表于: 2014-07-01   作者:aoyouzi   来源:转载   浏览次数:
摘要: HTTP(HyperText Transfer Protocol)是一套计算机通过网络进行通信的规则。计算机专家设计出HTTP,使HTTP客户(如Web浏览器)能够从HTTP服务器(Web服务器)请求信息和服务,HTTP目前协议的版本是1.1.HTTP是一种无状态的协议,无状态是指Web浏览器和Web服务器之间不需要建立持久的连接,这意味着当一个客户端向服务器端发出请求,然后Web服务器返回响应(
HTTP(HyperText Transfer Protocol)是一套计算机通过网络进行通信的规则。计算机专家设计出HTTP,使HTTP客户(如Web浏览器)能够从HTTP服务器(Web服务器)请求信息和服务,HTTP目前协议的版本是1.1.HTTP是一种无状态的协议,无状态是指Web浏览器和Web服务器之间不需要建立持久的连接,这意味着当一个客户端向服务器端发出请求,然后Web服务器返回响应(response),连接就被关闭了,在服务器端不保留连接的有关信息.HTTP遵循请求(Request)/应答(Response)模型。Web浏览器向Web服务器发送请求,Web服务器处理请求并返回适当的应答。所有HTTP连接都被构造成一套请求和应答。
HTTP使用内容类型,是指Web服务器向Web浏览器返回的文件都有与之相关的类型。所有这些类型在MIME Internet邮件协议上模型化,即Web服务器告诉Web浏览器该文件所具有的种类,是HTML文档、GIF格式图像、声音文件还是独立的应用程序。大多数Web浏览器都拥有一系列的可配置的辅助应用程序,它们告诉浏览器应该如何处理Web服务器发送过来的各种内容类型。
HTTP通信机制是在一次完整的HTTP通信过程中,Web浏览器与Web服务器之间将完成下列7个步骤:
(1)     建立TCP连接
在HTTP工作开始之前,Web浏览器首先要通过网络与Web服务器建立连接,该连接是通过TCP来完成的,该协议与IP协议共同构建Internet,即著名的TCP/IP协议族,因此Internet又被称作是TCP/IP网络。HTTP是比TCP更高层次的应用层协议,根据规则,只有低层协议建立之后才能,才能进行更层协议的连接,因此,首先要建立TCP连接,一般TCP连接的端口号是80
(2)     Web浏览器向Web服务器发送请求命令
一旦建立了TCP连接,Web浏览器就会向Web服务器发送请求命令
例如:GET/sample/hello.jsp HTTP/1.1
(3)     Web浏览器发送请求头信息
浏览器发送其请求命令之后,还要以头信息的形式向Web服务器发送一些别的信息,之后浏览器发送了一空白行来通知服务器,它已经结束了该头信息的发送。
(4)     Web服务器应答
客户机向服务器发出请求后,服务器会客户机回送应答,
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
应答的第一部分是协议的版本号和应答状态码
(5)     Web服务器发送应答头信息
正如客户端会随同请求发送关于自身的信息一样,服务器也会随同应答向用户发送关于它自己的数据及被请求的文档。
(6)     Web服务器向浏览器发送数据
Web服务器向浏览器发送头信息后,它会发送一个空白行来表示头信息的发送到此为结束,接着,它就以Content-Type应答头信息所描述的格式发送用户所请求的实际数据
(7)     Web服务器关闭TCP连接
一般情况下,一旦Web服务器向浏览器发送了请求数据,它就要关闭TCP连接,然后如果浏览器或者服务器在其头信息加入了这行代码
Connection:keep-alive
TCP连接在发送后将仍然保持打开状态,于是,浏览器可以继续通过相同的连接发送请求。保持连接节省了为每个请求建立新连接所需的时间,还节约了网络带宽。
    
HTTP请求格式
当浏览器向Web服务器发出请求时,它向服务器传递了一个数据块,也就是请求信息,HTTP请求信息由3部分组成:
l    请求方法URI协议/版本
l    请求头(Request Header)
l    请求正文
下面是一个HTTP请求的例子:
GET/sample.jspHTTP/1.1
Accept:image/gif.image/jpeg,*/*
Accept-Language:zh-cn
Connection:Keep-Alive
Host:localhost
User-Agent:Mozila/4.0(compatible;MSIE5.01;Window NT5.0)
Accept-Encoding:gzip,deflate
 
username=jinqiao&password=1234
 
(1)        请求方法URI协议/版本
请求的第一行是“方法URL议/版本”:GET/sample.jsp HTTP/1.1
以上代码中“GET”代表请求方法,“/sample.jsp”表示URI,“HTTP/1.1代表协议和协议的版本。
根据HTTP标准,HTTP请求可以使用多种请求方法。例如:HTTP1.1支持7种请求方法:GET、POST、HEAD、OPTIONS、PUT、DELETE和TARCE。在Internet应用中,最常用的方法是GET和POST。
URL完整地指定了要访问的网络资源,通常只要给出相对于服务器的根目录的相对目录即可,因此总是以“/”开头,最后,协议版本声明了通信过程中使用HTTP的版本。
(2) 请求头(Request Header)
请求头包含许多有关的客户端环境和请求正文的有用信息。例如,请求头可以声明浏览器所用的语言,请求正文的长度等。
Accept:image/gif.image/jpeg.*/*
Accept-Language:zh-cn
Connection:Keep-Alive
Host:localhost
User-Agent:Mozila/4.0(compatible:MSIE5.01:Windows NT5.0)
Accept-Encoding:gzip,deflate.
(3) 请求正文
请求头和请求正文之间是一个空行,这个行非常重要,它表示请求头已经结束,接下来的是请求正文。请求正文中可以包含客户提交的查询字符串信息:
username=jinqiao&password=1234
在以上的例子的HTTP请求中,请求的正文只有一行内容。当然,在实际应用中,HTTP请求正文可以包含更多的内容。
HTTP请求方法我这里只讨论GET方法与POST方法
l          GET方法
GET方法是默认的HTTP请求方法,我们日常用GET方法来提交表单数据,然而用GET方法提交的表单数据只经过了简单的编码,同时它将作为URL的一部分向Web服务器发送,因此,如果使用GET方法来提交表单数据就存在着安全隐患上。例如
从上面的URL请求中,很容易就可以辩认出表单提交的内容。(?之后的内容)另外由于GET方法提交的数据是作为URL请求的一部分所以提交的数据量不能太大
l          POST方法
POST方法是GET方法的一个替代方法,它主要是向Web服务器提交表单数据,尤其是大批量的数据。POST方法克服了GET方法的一些缺点。通过POST方法提交表单数据时,数据不是作为URL请求的一部分而是作为标准数据传送给Web服务器,这就克服了GET方法中的信息无法保密和数据量太小的缺点。因此,出于安全的考虑以及对用户隐私的尊重,通常表单提交时采用POST方法。
  从编程的角度来讲,如果用户通过GET方法提交数据,则数据存放在QUERY_STRING环境变量中,而POST方法提交的数据则可以从标准输入流中获取。
HTTP应答与HTTP请求相似,HTTP响应也由3个部分构成,分别是:
l 协议状态版本代码描述
l 响应头(Response Header)
l 响应正文
下面是一个HTTP响应的例子:
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Server:Apache Tomcat/5.0.12
Date:Mon,6Oct2003 13:23:42 GMT
Content-Length:112
 
<html>
<head>
<title>HTTP响应示例<title>
</head>
<body>
Hello HTTP!
</body>
</html>
协议状态代码描述HTTP响应的第一行类似于HTTP请求的第一行,它表示通信所用的协议是HTTP1.1服务器已经成功的处理了客户端发出的请求(200表示成功):
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
响应头(Response Header)响应头也和请求头一样包含许多有用的信息,例如服务器类型、日期时间、内容类型和长度等:
   Server:Apache Tomcat/5.0.12
Date:Mon,6Oct2003 13:13:33 GMT
Content-Type:text/html
Last-Moified:Mon,6 Oct 2003 13:23:42 GMT
Content-Length:112
 响应正文响应正文就是服务器返回的HTML页面:
  <html>
<head>
<title>HTTP响应示例<title>
</head>
<body>
Hello HTTP!
</body>
</html>
响应头和正文之间也必须用空行分隔 。  
l         HTTP应答码
   HTTP应答码也称为状态码,它反映了Web服务器处理HTTP请求状态。HTTP应答码由3位数字构成,其中首位数字定义了应答码的类型:
   1XX-信息类(Information),表示收到Web浏览器请求,正在进一步的处理中
   2XX-成功类(Successful),表示用户请求被正确接收,理解和处理例如:200 OK
      3XX-重定向类(Redirection),表示请求没有成功,客户必须采取进一步的动作。
      4XX-客户端错误(Client Error),表示客户端提交的请求有错误 例如:404 NOT
                                    Found,意味着请求中所引用的文档不存在。
      5XX-服务器错误(Server Error)表示服务器不能完成对请求的处理:如 500
      对于我们Web开发人员来说掌握HTTP应答码有助于提高Web应用程序调试的效率和准确性。
 
安全连接
Web应用最常见的用途之一是电子商务,可以利用Web服务器端程序使人们能够网络购物,需要指出一点是,缺省情况下,通过Internet发送信息是不安全的,如果某人碰巧截获了你发给朋友的一则消息,他就能打开它,假想在里面有你的信用卡号码,这会有多么糟糕,幸运的是,很多Web服务器以及Web浏览器都有创立安全连接的能力,这样它们就可以安全的通信了。
通过Internet提供安全连接最常见的标准是安全套接层(Secure Sockets layer,SSl)协议。SSL协议是一个应用层协议(和HTTP一样),用于安全方式在Web上交换数据,SSL使用公开密钥编码系统。从本质讲,这意味着业务中每一方都拥有一个公开的和一个私有的密钥。当一方使用另一方公开密钥进行编码时,只有拥有匹配密钥的人才能对其解码。简单来讲,公开密钥编码提供了一种用于在两方之间交换数据的安全方法,SSL连接建立之后,客户和服务器都交换公开密钥,并在进行业务联系之前进行验证,一旦双方的密钥都通过验证,就可以安全地交换数据。
  • GET
    通过请求URI得到资源
  • POST,
    用于添加新的内容
  • PUT
    用于修改某个内容
  • DELETE,
    删除某个内容
  • CONNECT,
    用于代理进行传输,如使用SSL
  • OPTIONS
    询问可以执行哪些方法
  • PATCH,
    部分文档更改
  • PROPFIND, (wedav)
    查看属性
  • PROPPATCH, (wedav)
    设置属性
  • MKCOL, (wedav)
    创建集合(文件夹)
  • COPY, (wedav)
    拷贝
  • MOVE, (wedav)
    移动
  • LOCK, (wedav)
    加锁
  • UNLOCK (wedav)
    解锁
  • TRACE
    用于远程诊断服务器
  • HEAD
    类似于GET, 但是不返回body信息,用于检查对象是否存在,以及得到对象的元数据
apache2中,可使用Limit,LimitExcept进行访问控制的 方法包括: GETPOSTPUTDELETECONNECT, OPTIONSPATCHPROPFINDPROPPATCHMKCOLCOPYMOVELOCK, 和  UNLOCK.
其中, HEAD GET POST OPTIONS PROPFIND是和读取相关的 方法,MKCOL PUT DELETE LOCK UNLOCK COPY MOVE PROPPATCH是和修改相关的 方法
 
part of Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1
RFC 2616 Fielding, et al.
9 Method Definitions
The set of common methods for HTTP/1.1 is defined below. Although this set can be expanded, additional methods cannot be assumed to share the same semantics for separately extended clients and servers.
The Host request-header field (section  14.23) MUST accompany all HTTP/1.1 requests.
9.1 Safe and Idempotent Methods
9.1.1 Safe Methods
Implementors should be aware that the software represents the user in their interactions over the Internet, and should be careful to allow the user to be aware of any actions they might take which may have an unexpected significance to themselves or others.
In particular, the convention has been established that the GET and HEAD methods SHOULD NOT have the significance of taking an action other than retrieval. These methods ought to be considered "safe". This allows user agents to represent other methods, such as POST, PUT and DELETE, in a special way, so that the user is made aware of the fact that a possibly unsafe action is being requested.
Naturally, it is not possible to ensure that the server does not generate side-effects as a result of performing a GET request; in fact, some dynamic resources consider that a feature. The important distinction here is that the user did not request the side-effects, so therefore cannot be held accountable for them.
9.1.2 Idempotent Methods
Methods can also have the property of "idempotence" in that (aside from error or expiration issues) the side-effects of N > 0 identical requests is the same as for a single request. The methods GET, HEAD, PUT and DELETE share this property. Also, the methods OPTIONS and TRACE SHOULD NOT have side effects, and so are inherently idempotent.
However, it is possible that a sequence of several requests is non- idempotent, even if all of the methods executed in that sequence are idempotent. (A sequence is idempotent if a single execution of the entire sequence always yields a result that is not changed by a reexecution of all, or part, of that sequence.) For example, a sequence is non-idempotent if its result depends on a value that is later modified in the same sequence.
A sequence that never has side effects is idempotent, by definition (provided that no concurrent operations are being executed on the same set of resources).
9.2 OPTIONS
The OPTIONS method represents a request for information about the communication options available on the request/response chain identified by the Request-URI. This method allows the client to determine the options and/or requirements associated with a resource, or the capabilities of a server, without implying a resource action or initiating a resource retrieval.
Responses to this method are not cacheable.
If the OPTIONS request includes an entity-body (as indicated by the presence of Content-Length or Transfer-Encoding), then the media type MUST be indicated by a Content-Type field. Although this specification does not define any use for such a body, future extensions to HTTP might use the OPTIONS body to make more detailed queries on the server. A server that does not support such an extension MAY discard the request body.
If the Request-URI is an asterisk ("*"), the OPTIONS request is intended to apply to the server in general rather than to a specific resource. Since a server's communication options typically depend on the resource, the "*" request is only useful as a "ping" or "no-op" type of method; it does nothing beyond allowing the client to test the capabilities of the server. For example, this can be used to test a proxy for HTTP/1.1 compliance (or lack thereof).
If the Request-URI is not an asterisk, the OPTIONS request applies only to the options that are available when communicating with that resource.
A 200 response SHOULD include any header fields that indicate optional features implemented by the server and applicable to that resource (e.g., Allow), possibly including extensions not defined by this specification. The response body, if any, SHOULD also include information about the communication options. The format for such a
body is not defined by this specification, but might be defined by future extensions to HTTP. Content negotiation MAY be used to select the appropriate response format. If no response body is included, the response MUST include a Content-Length field with a field-value of "0".
The Max-Forwards request-header field MAY be used to target a specific proxy in the request chain. When a proxy receives an OPTIONS request on an absoluteURI for which request forwarding is permitted, the proxy MUST check for a Max-Forwards field. If the Max-Forwards field-value is zero ("0"), the proxy MUST NOT forward the message; instead, the proxy SHOULD respond with its own communication options. If the Max-Forwards field-value is an integer greater than zero, the proxy MUST decrement the field-value when it forwards the request. If no Max-Forwards field is present in the request, then the forwarded request MUST NOT include a Max-Forwards field.
9.3 GET
The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI. If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process, it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process, unless that text happens to be the output of the process.
The semantics of the GET method change to a "conditional GET" if the request message includes an If-Modified-Since, If-Unmodified-Since, If-Match, If-None-Match, or If-Range header field. A conditional GET method requests that the entity be transferred only under the circumstances described by the conditional header field(s). The conditional GET method is intended to reduce unnecessary network usage by allowing cached entities to be refreshed without requiring multiple requests or transferring data already held by the client.
The semantics of the GET method change to a "partial GET" if the request message includes a Range header field. A partial GET requests that only part of the entity be transferred, as described in section  14.35. The partial GET method is intended to reduce unnecessary network usage by allowing partially-retrieved entities to be completed without transferring data already held by the client.
The response to a GET request is cacheable if and only if it meets the requirements for HTTP caching described in section 13.
See section  15.1.3 for security considerations when used for forms.
9.4 HEAD
The HEAD method is identical to GET except that the server MUST NOT return a message-body in the response. The metainformation contained in the HTTP headers in response to a HEAD request SHOULD be identical to the information sent in response to a GET request. This method can be used for obtaining metainformation about the entity implied by the request without transferring the entity-body itself. This method is often used for testing hypertext links for validity, accessibility, and recent modification.
The response to a HEAD request MAY be cacheable in the sense that the information contained in the response MAY be used to update a previously cached entity from that resource. If the new field values indicate that the cached entity differs from the current entity (as would be indicated by a change in Content-Length, Content-MD5, ETag or Last-Modified), then the cache MUST treat the cache entry as stale.
9.5 POST
The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions:
- Annotation of existing resources;
- Posting a message to a bulletin board, newsgroup, mailing list, or similar group of articles;
- Providing a block of data, such as the result of submitting a form, to a data-handling process;
- Extending a database through an append operation.
The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI. The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it, a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted, or a record is subordinate to a database.
The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI. In this case, either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status, depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result.
If a resource has been created on the origin server, the response SHOULD be 201 (Created) and contain an entity which describes the status of the request and refers to the new resource, and a Location header (see section  14.30).
Responses to this method are not cacheable, unless the response includes appropriate Cache-Control or Expires header fields. However, the 303 (See Other) response can be used to direct the user agent to retrieve a cacheable resource.
POST requests MUST obey the message transmission requirements set out in section 8.2.
See section  15.1.3 for security considerations.
9.6 PUT
The PUT method requests that the enclosed entity be stored under the supplied Request-URI. If the Request-URI refers to an already existing resource, the enclosed entity SHOULD be considered as a modified version of the one residing on the origin server. If the Request-URI does not point to an existing resource, and that URI is capable of being defined as a new resource by the requesting user agent, the origin server can create the resource with that URI. If a new resource is created, the origin server MUST inform the user agent via the 201 (Created) response. If an existing resource is modified, either the 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) response codes SHOULD be sent to indicate successful completion of the request. If the resource could not be created or modified with the Request-URI, an appropriate error response SHOULD be given that reflects the nature of the problem. The recipient of the entity MUST NOT ignore any Content-* (e.g. Content-Range) headers that it does not understand or implement and MUST return a 501 (Not Implemented) response in such cases.
If the request passes through a cache and the Request-URI identifies one or more currently cached entities, those entries SHOULD be treated as stale. Responses to this method are not cacheable.
The fundamental difference between the POST and PUT requests is reflected in the different meaning of the Request-URI. The URI in a POST request identifies the resource that will handle the enclosed entity. That resource might be a data-accepting process, a gateway to some other protocol, or a separate entity that accepts annotations. In contrast, the URI in a PUT request identifies the entity enclosed with the request -- the user agent knows what URI is intended and the server MUST NOT attempt to apply the request to some other resource. If the server desires that the request be applied to a different URI,
it MUST send a 301 (Moved Permanently) response; the user agent MAY then make its own decision regarding whether or not to redirect the request.
A single resource MAY be identified by many different URIs. For example, an article might have a URI for identifying "the current version" which is separate from the URI identifying each particular version. In this case, a PUT request on a general URI might result in several other URIs being defined by the origin server.
HTTP/1.1 does not define how a PUT method affects the state of an origin server.
PUT requests MUST obey the message transmission requirements set out in section 8.2.
Unless otherwise specified for a particular entity-header, the entity-headers in the PUT request SHOULD be applied to the resource created or modified by the PUT.
9.7 DELETE
The DELETE method requests that the origin server delete the resource identified by the Request-URI. This method MAY be overridden by human intervention (or other means) on the origin server. The client cannot be guaranteed that the operation has been carried out, even if the status code returned from the origin server indicates that the action has been completed successfully. However, the server SHOULD NOT indicate success unless, at the time the response is given, it intends to delete the resource or move it to an inaccessible location.
A successful response SHOULD be 200 (OK) if the response includes an entity describing the status, 202 (Accepted) if the action has not yet been enacted, or 204 (No Content) if the action has been enacted but the response does not include an entity.
If the request passes through a cache and the Request-URI identifies one or more currently cached entities, those entries SHOULD be treated as stale. Responses to this method are not cacheable.
9.8 TRACE
The TRACE method is used to invoke a remote, application-layer loop- back of the request message. The final recipient of the request SHOULD reflect the message received back to the client as the entity-body of a 200 (OK) response. The final recipient is either the
origin server or the first proxy or gateway to receive a Max-Forwards value of zero (0) in the request (see section 14.31). A TRACE request MUST NOT include an entity.
TRACE allows the client to see what is being received at the other end of the request chain and use that data for testing or diagnostic information. The value of the Via header field (section 14.45) is of particular interest, since it acts as a trace of the request chain. Use of the Max-Forwards header field allows the client to limit the length of the request chain, which is useful for testing a chain of proxies forwarding messages in an infinite loop.
If the request is valid, the response SHOULD contain the entire request message in the entity-body, with a Content-Type of "message/http". Responses to this method MUST NOT be cached.
9.9 CONNECT
This specification reserves the method name CONNECT for use with a proxy that can dynamically switch to being a tunnel (e.g. SSL tunneling  [44]).
 
from:http://www.cnblogs.com/yin-jingyu/archive/2011/08/01/2123548.html#top

HTTP深入浅出 http请求

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HTTP请求流程 首先,http属于Tcp/Ip模型中的应用层协议,而两个应用程序(我们这里指的就是浏览器与
最近这两个星期加班都比较晚,12点左右吧。现在项目的问题都处理的差不多了,抽空写下对前段时间遇
Nginx在7层负载交换、反向代理服务领域使用比较广泛。Nginx的结构也比较简单,除了底层几个核心的模
【转自 http://www.tracefact.net/Asp-Net-Architecture/Http-Request-Processing-Flow.aspx 】 引
Nginx在7层负载交换、反向代理服务领域使用比较广泛。Nginx的结构也比较简单,除了底层几个核心的模
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