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Oracle 常用操作(实用)

发表于: 2015-06-24   作者:吃猫的鱼   来源:转载   浏览:
摘要: SQL>select text from all_source where owner=user and name=upper('&plsql_name');  SQL>select * from user_ind_columns where index_name=upper('&index_name');  将表记录恢复到指定时间段以前
  • SQL>select text from all_source where owner=user and name=upper('&plsql_name');
    
     SQL>select * from user_ind_columns where index_name=upper('&index_name');
     将表记录恢复到指定时间段以前的状态:
  1. 查看指定时间段以前的表记录,时间单位:分钟:
    SELECT * FROM TFM_SERV_EXT  AS OF TIMESTAMP(SYSTIMESTAMP - INTERVAL '30'MINUTE)
      
  2. 用指定时间前的表记录创建临时表:
    CREATE TABLE TFM_SERV_EXT_1106 AS SELECT * FROM TFM_SERV_EXT  AS OF TIMESTAMP(SYSTIMESTAMP - INTERVAL '30'MINUTE) ;
     
  3. Delete掉错误表的所有记录
  4. 将临时表记录插入错误表:
    INSERT INTO TFM_SERV_EXT  SELECT * FROM TFM_SERV_EXT_1106;
  • 查看DB锁表信息:
    SELECT SESS.SID,
       SESS.SERIAL#,
       LO.ORACLE_USERNAME,
       LO.OS_USER_NAME,
       AO.OBJECT_NAME,
       LO.LOCKED_MODE
       FROM V$LOCKED_OBJECT LO,
       DBA_OBJECTS AO,
       V$SESSION SESS
    WHERE AO.OBJECT_ID = LO.OBJECT_ID AND LO.SESSION_ID = SESS.SID;
     
  • Kill锁表Session:
    如有記錄則表示有lock,記錄下SID和serial# ,將記錄的ID替換下面的738,1429,即可解除LOCK
    alter system kill session '738,1429';
     
  • 查询session未释放的SQL:
    SELECT T.*, S.SQL_TEXT
      FROM V$SQL S,
           (SELECT COUNT(*), V.PREV_SQL_ADDR, V.PREV_HASH_VALUE
              FROM V$SESSION V
             WHERE V.USERNAME = 'ETL72_DEV'
             GROUP BY V.PREV_SQL_ADDR, V.PREV_HASH_VALUE
             ORDER BY COUNT(*) DESC) T
     WHERE S.ADDRESS = T.PREV_SQL_ADDR
       AND S.HASH_VALUE = PREV_HASH_VALUE ';
    
     
  • 表空间操作:
  1. 建立表空间
    CREATE TABLESPACE data01 DATAFILE '/oracle/oradata/db/DATA01.dbf' SIZE 500M UNIFORM SIZE 128k; #指定区尺寸为128k,如不指定,区尺寸默认为64k 
    
     
  2. 删除表空间
    DROP TABLESPACE data01 INCLUDING CONTENTS AND DATAFILES; 
    
     
  3. 建立UNDO表空间 
    CREATE UNDO TABLESPACE UNDOTBS02 DATAFILE '/oracle/oradata/db/UNDOTBS02.dbf' SIZE 50M #注意:在OPEN状态下某些时刻只能用一个UNDO表空间,如果要用新建的表空间,必须切换到该表空间: ALTER SYSTEM SET undo_tablespace=UNDOTBS02;
     
  4. 建立临时表空间
    CREATE TEMPORARY TABLESPACE temp_data TEMPFILE '/oracle/oradata/db/TEMP_DATA.dbf' SIZE 50M 
    
     
  5. 改变表空间状态
    1.使表空间脱机 ALTER TABLESPACE game OFFLINE; 如果是意外删除了数据文件,则必须带有RECOVER选项 ALTER TABLESPACE game OFFLINE FOR RECOVER; 
    2.使表空间联机 ALTER TABLESPACE game ONLINE; 
    3.使数据文件脱机 ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE 3 OFFLINE; 
    4.使数据文件联机 ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE 3 ONLINE; 
    5.使表空间只读 ALTER TABLESPACE game READ ONLY; 
    6.使表空间可读写 ALTER TABLESPACE game READ WRITE; 
    
     
  6. 扩展表空间 首先查看表空间的名字和所属文件
    SELECT UPPER(F.TABLESPACE_NAME) "表空间名", 
      D.TOT_GROOTTE_MB "表空间大小(M)", 
      D.TOT_GROOTTE_MB - F.TOTAL_BYTES "已使用空间(M)", 
      TO_CHAR(ROUND((D.TOT_GROOTTE_MB - F.TOTAL_BYTES) / D.TOT_GROOTTE_MB * 100, 
      2), 
      '990.99') "使用比", 
      F.TOTAL_BYTES "空闲空间(M)", 
      F.MAX_BYTES "最大块(M)" 
      FROM (SELECT TABLESPACE_NAME, 
      ROUND(SUM(BYTES) / (1024 * 1024), 2) TOTAL_BYTES, 
      ROUND(MAX(BYTES) / (1024 * 1024), 2) MAX_BYTES 
      FROM SYS.DBA_FREE_SPACE 
      GROUP BY TABLESPACE_NAME) F, 
      (SELECT DD.TABLESPACE_NAME, 
      ROUND(SUM(DD.BYTES) / (1024 * 1024), 2) TOT_GROOTTE_MB 
      FROM SYS.DBA_DATA_FILES DD 
      GROUP BY DD.TABLESPACE_NAME) D 
      WHERE D.TABLESPACE_NAME = F.TABLESPACE_NAME 
      ORDER BY 4 DESC; 
    
     

6.1 增加数据文件

ALTER TABLESPACE game ADD DATAFILE '/oracle/oradata/db/GAME02.dbf' SIZE 1000M; 

6.2 手动增加数据文件尺寸

ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE '/oracle/oradata/db/GAME02.dbf' RESIZE 4000M; 

    6.3 设定数据文件自动扩展

ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE '/oracle/oradata/db/GAME02.dbf AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 100M MAXSIZE 10000M; 

    6.4 设定后查看表空间信息

SELECT A.TABLESPACE_NAME,A.BYTES TOTAL,B.BYTES USED, C.BYTES FREE, (B.BYTES*100)/A.BYTES "% USED",(C.BYTES*100)/A.BYTES "% FREE" FROM SYS.SM$TS_AVAIL A,SYS.SM$TS_USED B,SYS.SM$TS_FREE C WHERE A.TABLESPACE_NAME=B.TABLESPACE_NAME AND A.TABLESPACE_NAME=C.TABLESPACE_NAME; 

 

6.5 查询表空间大小

SELECTDISTINCT a.tablespace_name 表空间名称, 
                trunc((free_space / total_space) *100) || '%' 可用率,
                to_char(free_space /1024/1024, '9999999990.99') || 'M' 剩余空间,
                to_char(total_space /1024/1024, '9999999990.99') || 'M' 总空间,
                to_char((total_space - free_space) /1024/1024,
                         '9999999990.99') || 'M' 已使用空间
  FROM (SELECT tablespace_name, SUM(bytes) free_space
           FROM dba_free_space
          GROUPBY tablespace_name) a,
       (SELECT tablespace_name, SUM(bytes) total_space
           FROM dba_data_files
          GROUPBY tablespace_name) b
 WHERE a.tablespace_name = b.tablespace_name;

 

 

 

  • 常用数据字典的查询使用方法。
     1、用户
          查看当前用户的缺省表空间
    SQL>select username,default_tablespace from user_users;
    
     查看当前用户的角色
     SQL>select * from user_role_privs;
    
           查看当前用户的系统权限和表级权限
    SQL>select * from user_sys_privs;
    SQL>select * from user_tab_privs;
    
     创建数据库用户并赋权
    drop user etl72_dev cascade;
    DROP TABLESPACE ETL72_DEV INCLUDING CONTENTS AND DATAFILES; 
    
    CREATE TABLESPACE ETL72_DEV DATAFILE 'D:\oracle\product\10.2.0\oradata\osstest\DATA02.dbf' SIZE 1200M UNIFORM SIZE 128k; 
    create user etl72_dev
      identified by smart
      default tablespace ETL72_DEV
      temporary tablespace temp
      profile DEFAULT;
    -- Grant/Revoke role privileges 
    grant connect to etl72_dev;
    grant exp_full_database to etl72_dev;
    grant imp_full_database to etl72_dev;
    grant resource to etl72_dev;
    -- Grant/Revoke system privileges 
    grant create procedure to etl72_dev;
    grant create trigger to etl72_dev;
    grant execute any procedure to etl72_dev;
    grant grant any privilege to etl72_dev;
    grant restricted session to etl72_dev;
    grant select any table to etl72_dev;
    grant unlimited tablespace to etl72_dev;
    grant create any view to etl72_dev;
    
    grant create session to etl72_dev;
    GRANT DELETE ANY TABLE TO etl72_dev;
    GRANT DROP ANY TABLE TO etl72_dev;
    GRANT INSERT ANY TABLE TO etl72_dev;
    GRANT SELECT ANY TABLE TO etl72_dev;
    GRANT UNLIMITED TABLESPACE TO etl72_dev;
    GRANT UPDATE ANY TABLE TO etl72_dev;
    
     
    
     
         

2、表
     查看用户下所有的表

SQL>select * from user_tables;

        查看名称包含log字符的表

SQL>select object_name,object_id from user_objects where instr(object_name,'LOG')>0;

       查看某表的创建时间

SQL>select object_name,created from user_objects where object_name=upper('&table_name');

查看某表的大小

SQL>select sum(bytes)/(1024*1024) as "size(M)" from user_segments where segment_name=upper('&table_name');

 查看放在ORACLE的内存区里的表

SQL>select table_name,cache from user_tables where instr(cache,'Y')>0;

 
            批量删除:

select 'drop table '||table_name||';' as sqlscript from user_tables;

 
 3、索引
      查看索引个数和类别

SQL>select index_name,index_type,table_name from user_indexes order by table_name;

 
            查看索引被索引的字段

SQL>select * from user_ind_columns where index_name=upper('&index_name');

 
            查看索引的大小
     

SQL>select sum(bytes)/(1024*1024) as "size(M)" from user_segments where segment_name=upper('&index_name');

 

 4、序列号
      查看序列号,last_number是当前值

SQL>select * from user_sequences;

 
       5、视图
      查看视图的名称

SQL>select view_name from user_views;

 
            查看创建视图的select语句

SQL>set view_name,text_length from user_views;
SQL>set long 2000;                说明:可以根据视图的text_length值设定set long 的大小
SQL>select text from user_views where view_name=upper('&view_name');

 
       6、同义词
            查看同义词的名称

SQL>select * from user_synonyms;

 
             7、约束条件
      查看某表的约束条件

SQL>select constraint_name, constraint_type,search_condition, r_constraint_name
           from user_constraints where table_name = upper('&table_name');

SQL>select c.constraint_name,c.constraint_type,cc.column_name
          from user_constraints c,user_cons_columns cc
          where c.owner = upper('&table_owner') and c.table_name = upper('&table_name')
          and c.owner = cc.owner and c.constraint_name = cc.constraint_name
          order by cc.position;

 
         查看有几个表引用了其中某个特定表的主键做为其外键的

select t.table_name from user_constraints t
where t.constraint_type='R' and t.r_constraint_name
in(
select s.constraint_name from user_constraints s
where s.table_name='主表名' and s.constraint_type='P') 

  
     查看外键所关联的数据表

SELECT * FROM USER_CONSTRAINTS C WHERE C.CONSTRAINT_TYPE = 'R' AND C.CONSTRAINT_NAME LIKE '%ETL_TASK'

 
 8、存储函数和过程
      查看函数和过程的状态

SQL>select object_name,status from user_objects where object_type='FUNCTION';
SQL>select object_name,status from user_objects where object_type='PROCEDURE';

 
            查看函数和过程的源代码

SQL>select text from all_source where owner=user and name=upper('&plsql_name');

 
      9、DB Link:

DROP DATABASE LINK elinkDB_copy;          
create public database link <DBLink名称> connect to <被连接库的用户名> identified by <被连接库的密码> using '<Oracle客户端工具建立的指向被连接库服务名>';  

DB Link 使用示例

INSERT INTO T_DEPARTMENT_DEFINE          
   (DEPARTMENT_CODE, INTERNAL_DEPARTMENT_CODE,          
    DEPARTMENT_CHINESE_NAME, DEPARTMENT_ABBR_NAME, DEPARTMENT_LEVEL,          
    FOUND_DATE, CHINESE_ADDRESS, POSTCODE, TELEPHONE,          
    UPPER_DEPARTMENT_CODE, LINK_MAN_CODE, TELE_AREA_CODE,          
    LEVEL_DEP_CODE, FCD, FCU, LCD, LCU)          
  (SELECT DEPARTMENT_CODE, INTERNAL_DEPARTMENT_CODE, DEPARTMENT_CHINESE_NAME,          
  DEPARTMENT_ABBR_NAME, DEPARTMENT_LEVEL, FOUND_DATE,          
  CHINESE_ADDRESS, POSTCODE, TELEPHONE, UPPER_DEPARTMENT_CODE,          
  LINK_MAN_CODE, TELE_AREA_CODE, LEVEL_DEP_CODE, FCD, FCU, LCD, LCU          
     FROM T_DEPARTMENT_DEFINE@elinkDB_copy);          
commit;          
ALTER SESSION CLOSE DATABASE LINK elinkDB_copy;

  

 

 

ORACLE常用的字段类型有
CHAR                        固定长度的字符串
VARCHAR2               可变长度的字符串
NUMBER(M,N)           数字型M是位数总长度, N是小数的长度
DATE                        日期类型

 

创建表时要把较小的不为空的字段放在前面, 可能为空的字段放在后面
创建表时可以用中文的字段名, 但最好还是用英文的字段名
创建表时可以给字段加上默认值, 例如 DEFAULT SYSDATE
这样每次插入和修改时, 不用程序操作这个字段都能得到动作的时间
创建表时可以给字段加上约束条件
例如 不允许重复 UNIQUE, 关键字 PRIMARY KEY

    5.ALTER        (改变表, 索引, 视图等)

改变表的名称
ALTER TABLE 表名1  RENAME TO 表名2;
在表的后面增加一个字段
ALTER TABLE表名 ADD 字段名 字段名描述;
修改表里字段的定义描述
ALTER TABLE表名 MODIFY字段名 字段名描述;
给表里的字段加上约束条件
ALTER TABLE 表名 ADD CONSTRAINT 约束名 PRIMARY KEY (字段名);
ALTER TABLE 表名 ADD CONSTRAINT 约束名 UNIQUE (字段名);
把表放在或取出数据库的内存区
ALTER TABLE 表名 CACHE;
ALTER TABLE 表名 NOCACHE;

    6.DROP(删除表, 索引, 视图, 同义词, 过程, 函数, 数据库链接等)

删除表和它所有的约束条件
DROP TABLE 表名 CASCADE CONSTRAINTS;

    7.TRUNCATE (清空表里的所有记录, 保留表的结构)

TRUNCATE 表名;

    8.查看当前数据库谁在运行什么语句:

SELECT OSUSER, USERNAME, SQL_TEXT
  FROM V$SESSION A, V$SQLTEXT B  
 WHERE A.SQL_ADDRESS = B.ADDRESS
 ORDER BY ADDRESS, PIECE;

 

Oracle 常用操作(实用)

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