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【Avro二】Avro RPC框架

发表于: 2015-04-09   作者:bit1129   来源:转载   浏览:
rpc
摘要: 1. Avro RPC简介 1.1. RPC RPC逻辑上分为二层,一是传输层,负责网络通信;二是协议层,将数据按照一定协议格式打包和解包 从序列化方式来看,Apache Thrift 和Google的Protocol Buffers和Avro应该是属于同一个级别的框架,都能跨语言,性能优秀,数据精简,但是Avro的动态模式(不用生成代码,而且性能很好)这个特点让人非常喜欢,比较适合R

1. Avro RPC简介

1.1. RPC

  • RPC逻辑上分为二层,一是传输层,负责网络通信;二是协议层,将数据按照一定协议格式打包和解包
  • 从序列化方式来看,Apache Thrift 和Google的Protocol Buffers和Avro应该是属于同一个级别的框架,都能跨语言,性能优秀,数据精简,但是Avro的动态模式(不用生成代码,而且性能很好)这个特点让人非常喜欢,比较适合RPC的数据交换。

1.2. Avro RPC的主要特点

Avro RPC 是一个支持跨语言实现的RPC服务框架。非常轻量级,实现简洁,使用方便,同时支持使用者进行二次开发,逻辑上该框架分为两层:

  • 网络传输层使用Netty的Nio实现。
  • 协议层可扩展,目前支持的数据序列化方式有Avro,Protocol Buffers ,Json, Hessian,Java序列化。 使用者可以注册自己的协议格式及序列化方式。

Avro RPC主要特点:

  • 客户端传输层与应用层逻辑分离,传输层主要职责包括创建连接,连接查找与复用,传输数据,接收服务端回复后回调应用层;
  • 客户端支持同步调用和异步调用。服务异步化能很好的提高系统吞吐量,建议使用异步调用。为防止异步发送请求过快,客户端增加了“请求流量限制”功能;
  • 服务端有一个协议注册工厂和序列化注册工厂。这样方便针对不同的应用场景来定制服务方式。RPC应该只是服务方式的一种。在分布式的系统架构中,分布式节点之间的通信会存在多种方式,比如MQ的TOP消息,一个消息可以有多个订阅者。因此avro-rpc不仅仅是一个RPC服务框架,还是一个分布式通信的一个基础骨架,提供了很好的扩展性;
  • Avro序列化框架是Hadoop下的一个子项目,其特点是数据序列化不带标签,因此序列化后的数据非常小。支持动态解析, 不像Thrift 与 Protocol Buffers必须根据IDL来生成代码,这样侵入性有点强。性能很好,基本上和 Protocol Buffers差不多;

2. Avro RPC开发

2.1 Maven依赖

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
         xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

    <groupId>learn</groupId>
    <artifactId>learn.avro</artifactId>
    <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>

    <dependencies>
        <!--avro core-->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.apache.avro</groupId>
            <artifactId>avro</artifactId>
            <version>1.7.7</version>
        </dependency>
        <!--avro rpc support-->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.apache.avro</groupId>
            <artifactId>avro-ipc</artifactId>
            <version>1.7.7</version>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>
    <build>
        <plugins>
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.apache.avro</groupId>
                <artifactId>avro-maven-plugin</artifactId>
                <version>1.7.7</version>
                <executions>
                    <execution>
                        <phase>generate-sources</phase>
                        <goals>
                            <!--Maven goal that helps for code generation-->
                            <goal>schema</goal>
                            <!--For RPC used-->
                            <goal>protocol</goal>
                            <goal>idl-protocol</goal>
                        </goals>
                        <configuration>
                            <sourceDirectory>${project.basedir}/src/main/avro/</sourceDirectory>
                            <outputDirectory>${project.basedir}/src/main/java/</outputDirectory>
                        </configuration>
                    </execution>
                </executions>
            </plugin>
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
                <artifactId>maven-compiler-plugin</artifactId>
                <configuration>
                    <source>1.7</source>
                    <target>1.7</target>
                </configuration>
            </plugin>
        </plugins>
    </build>
</project>

 

2.2 定义协议schema文件(在src/main/avro/mail.avpr)

{"namespace": "examples.avro.rpc",
 "protocol": "Mail",

 "types": [
     {"name": "Message", "type": "record",
      "fields": [
          {"name": "to",   "type": "string"},
          {"name": "from", "type": "string"},
          {"name": "body", "type": "string"}
      ]
     }
 ],

 "messages": {
     "send": {
         "request": [{"name": "message", "type": "Message"}],
         "response": "string"
     }
 }
}

 

2.3 生成代码:

在Intellij Idea的Maven视图中,learn avro->Plugins->avro->avro:protocol,右击avro:protocol,执行Run Maven Build,生成protocol schema对应的Java实体类

 

2.3.1 Mail接口

/**
 * Autogenerated by Avro
 *
 * DO NOT EDIT DIRECTLY
 */
package examples.avro.rpc;


@SuppressWarnings("all")
@org.apache.avro.specific.AvroGenerated
public interface Mail {
    public static final org.apache.avro.Protocol PROTOCOL = org.apache.avro.Protocol.parse("{\"protocol\":\"Mail\",\"namespace\":\"example.proto\",\"types\":[{\"type\":\"record\",\"name\":\"Message\",\"fields\":[{\"name\":\"to\",\"type\":\"string\"},{\"name\":\"from\",\"type\":\"string\"},{\"name\":\"body\",\"type\":\"string\"}]}],\"messages\":{\"send\":{\"request\":[{\"name\":\"message\",\"type\":\"Message\"}],\"response\":\"string\"}}}");

    ///Mail接口有1个方法send,参数是Message,Message是一个Avro类,可以序列化和反序列化
    java.lang.CharSequence send(Message message) throws org.apache.avro.AvroRemoteException;

    @SuppressWarnings("all")
    public interface Callback extends Mail {
        public static final org.apache.avro.Protocol PROTOCOL = Mail.PROTOCOL;

        void send(Message message, org.apache.avro.ipc.Callback<CharSequence> callback) throws java.io.IOException;
    }
}

 

2.3.2 Message类(根据schema文件生成)

/**
 * Autogenerated by Avro
 * 
 * DO NOT EDIT DIRECTLY
 */
package examples.avro.rpc;
@SuppressWarnings("all")
@org.apache.avro.specific.AvroGenerated
public class Message extends org.apache.avro.specific.SpecificRecordBase implements org.apache.avro.specific.SpecificRecord {
  public static final org.apache.avro.Schema SCHEMA$ = new org.apache.avro.Schema.Parser().parse("{\"type\":\"record\",\"name\":\"Message\",\"namespace\":\"example.proto\",\"fields\":[{\"name\":\"to\",\"type\":\"string\"},{\"name\":\"from\",\"type\":\"string\"},{\"name\":\"body\",\"type\":\"string\"}]}");
  public static org.apache.avro.Schema getClassSchema() { return SCHEMA$; }
  @Deprecated public java.lang.CharSequence to;
  @Deprecated public java.lang.CharSequence from;
  @Deprecated public java.lang.CharSequence body;

  /**
   * Default constructor.  Note that this does not initialize fields
   * to their default values from the schema.  If that is desired then
   * one should use <code>newBuilder()</code>. 
   */
  public Message() {}

  /**
   * All-args constructor.
   */
  public Message(java.lang.CharSequence to, java.lang.CharSequence from, java.lang.CharSequence body) {
    this.to = to;
    this.from = from;
    this.body = body;
  }

  public org.apache.avro.Schema getSchema() { return SCHEMA$; }
  // Used by DatumWriter.  Applications should not call. 
  public java.lang.Object get(int field$) {
    switch (field$) {
    case 0: return to;
    case 1: return from;
    case 2: return body;
    default: throw new org.apache.avro.AvroRuntimeException("Bad index");
    }
  }
  // Used by DatumReader.  Applications should not call. 
  @SuppressWarnings(value="unchecked")
  public void put(int field$, java.lang.Object value$) {
    switch (field$) {
    case 0: to = (java.lang.CharSequence)value$; break;
    case 1: from = (java.lang.CharSequence)value$; break;
    case 2: body = (java.lang.CharSequence)value$; break;
    default: throw new org.apache.avro.AvroRuntimeException("Bad index");
    }
  }

  /**
   * Gets the value of the 'to' field.
   */
  public java.lang.CharSequence getTo() {
    return to;
  }

  /**
   * Sets the value of the 'to' field.
   * @param value the value to set.
   */
  public void setTo(java.lang.CharSequence value) {
    this.to = value;
  }

  /**
   * Gets the value of the 'from' field.
   */
  public java.lang.CharSequence getFrom() {
    return from;
  }

  /**
   * Sets the value of the 'from' field.
   * @param value the value to set.
   */
  public void setFrom(java.lang.CharSequence value) {
    this.from = value;
  }

  /**
   * Gets the value of the 'body' field.
   */
  public java.lang.CharSequence getBody() {
    return body;
  }

  /**
   * Sets the value of the 'body' field.
   * @param value the value to set.
   */
  public void setBody(java.lang.CharSequence value) {
    this.body = value;
  }

  /** Creates a new Message RecordBuilder */
  public static Message.Builder newBuilder() {
    return new Message.Builder();
  }
  
  /** Creates a new Message RecordBuilder by copying an existing Builder */
  public static Message.Builder newBuilder(Message.Builder other) {
    return new Message.Builder(other);
  }
  
  /** Creates a new Message RecordBuilder by copying an existing Message instance */
  public static Message.Builder newBuilder(Message other) {
    return new Message.Builder(other);
  }
  
  /**
   * RecordBuilder for Message instances.
   */
  public static class Builder extends org.apache.avro.specific.SpecificRecordBuilderBase<Message>
    implements org.apache.avro.data.RecordBuilder<Message> {

    private java.lang.CharSequence to;
    private java.lang.CharSequence from;
    private java.lang.CharSequence body;

    /** Creates a new Builder */
    private Builder() {
      super(Message.SCHEMA$);
    }
    
    /** Creates a Builder by copying an existing Builder */
    private Builder(Message.Builder other) {
      super(other);
      if (isValidValue(fields()[0], other.to)) {
        this.to = data().deepCopy(fields()[0].schema(), other.to);
        fieldSetFlags()[0] = true;
      }
      if (isValidValue(fields()[1], other.from)) {
        this.from = data().deepCopy(fields()[1].schema(), other.from);
        fieldSetFlags()[1] = true;
      }
      if (isValidValue(fields()[2], other.body)) {
        this.body = data().deepCopy(fields()[2].schema(), other.body);
        fieldSetFlags()[2] = true;
      }
    }
    
    /** Creates a Builder by copying an existing Message instance */
    private Builder(Message other) {
            super(Message.SCHEMA$);
      if (isValidValue(fields()[0], other.to)) {
        this.to = data().deepCopy(fields()[0].schema(), other.to);
        fieldSetFlags()[0] = true;
      }
      if (isValidValue(fields()[1], other.from)) {
        this.from = data().deepCopy(fields()[1].schema(), other.from);
        fieldSetFlags()[1] = true;
      }
      if (isValidValue(fields()[2], other.body)) {
        this.body = data().deepCopy(fields()[2].schema(), other.body);
        fieldSetFlags()[2] = true;
      }
    }

    /** Gets the value of the 'to' field */
    public java.lang.CharSequence getTo() {
      return to;
    }
    
    /** Sets the value of the 'to' field */
    public Message.Builder setTo(java.lang.CharSequence value) {
      validate(fields()[0], value);
      this.to = value;
      fieldSetFlags()[0] = true;
      return this; 
    }
    
    /** Checks whether the 'to' field has been set */
    public boolean hasTo() {
      return fieldSetFlags()[0];
    }
    
    /** Clears the value of the 'to' field */
    public Message.Builder clearTo() {
      to = null;
      fieldSetFlags()[0] = false;
      return this;
    }

    /** Gets the value of the 'from' field */
    public java.lang.CharSequence getFrom() {
      return from;
    }
    
    /** Sets the value of the 'from' field */
    public Message.Builder setFrom(java.lang.CharSequence value) {
      validate(fields()[1], value);
      this.from = value;
      fieldSetFlags()[1] = true;
      return this; 
    }
    
    /** Checks whether the 'from' field has been set */
    public boolean hasFrom() {
      return fieldSetFlags()[1];
    }
    
    /** Clears the value of the 'from' field */
    public Message.Builder clearFrom() {
      from = null;
      fieldSetFlags()[1] = false;
      return this;
    }

    /** Gets the value of the 'body' field */
    public java.lang.CharSequence getBody() {
      return body;
    }
    
    /** Sets the value of the 'body' field */
    public Message.Builder setBody(java.lang.CharSequence value) {
      validate(fields()[2], value);
      this.body = value;
      fieldSetFlags()[2] = true;
      return this; 
    }
    
    /** Checks whether the 'body' field has been set */
    public boolean hasBody() {
      return fieldSetFlags()[2];
    }
    
    /** Clears the value of the 'body' field */
    public Message.Builder clearBody() {
      body = null;
      fieldSetFlags()[2] = false;
      return this;
    }

    @Override
    public Message build() {
      try {
        Message record = new Message();
        record.to = fieldSetFlags()[0] ? this.to : (java.lang.CharSequence) defaultValue(fields()[0]);
        record.from = fieldSetFlags()[1] ? this.from : (java.lang.CharSequence) defaultValue(fields()[1]);
        record.body = fieldSetFlags()[2] ? this.body : (java.lang.CharSequence) defaultValue(fields()[2]);
        return record;
      } catch (Exception e) {
        throw new org.apache.avro.AvroRuntimeException(e);
      }
    }
  }
}

 

2.3.3 AvroServer类

 

package examples.avro.rpc;

import org.apache.avro.ipc.NettyServer;
import org.apache.avro.ipc.Server;
import org.apache.avro.ipc.specific.SpecificResponder;
import org.apache.avro.util.Utf8;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.net.InetSocketAddress;

//Server端的实现Mai服务
class MailImpl implements Mail {
    public Utf8 send(Message message) {
        System.out.println("Message Received:" + message);
        return new Utf8("Received your message: " + message.getFrom().toString()
                + " with body " + message.getBody().toString());
    }
}

public class AvroServer {


    private static Server server;

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {

        System.out.println("Starting server");
        startServer();
        Thread.sleep(1000);
        System.out.println("Server started");
        Thread.sleep(60 * 1000);
        server.close();
    }

    private static void startServer() throws IOException {
        server = new NettyServer(new SpecificResponder(Mail.class, new MailImpl()), new InetSocketAddress(65111));
    }
}

 

 

2.3.3 AvroClient类

package examples.avro.rpc;

import org.apache.avro.ipc.NettyTransceiver;
import org.apache.avro.ipc.specific.SpecificRequestor;
import org.apache.avro.util.Utf8;

import java.net.InetSocketAddress;

public class AvroClient {
    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        NettyTransceiver client = new NettyTransceiver(new InetSocketAddress(65111));
        ///获取Mail接口的proxy实现
        Mail proxy = SpecificRequestor.getClient(Mail.class, client);
        System.out.println("Client of Mail Proxy is built");

        // fill in the Message record and send it
        args = new String[]{"to:Tom", "from:Jack", "body:How are you"};
        Message message = new Message();
        message.setTo(new Utf8(args[0]));
        message.setFrom(new Utf8(args[1]));
        message.setBody(new Utf8(args[2]));
        System.out.println("RPC call with message:  " + message.toString());

        ///底层给服务器发送send方法调用
        System.out.println("Result: " + proxy.send(message));

        // cleanup
        client.close();
    }
}

 

本文支持对Avro RPC的粗浅尝试,Avro Client端用的同步通信方式

 

 

 

 

【Avro二】Avro RPC框架

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