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我使用过的Linux命令之complete - 强劲的bash参数补全功能

发表于: 2014-12-25   作者:dcj3sjt126com   来源:转载   浏览次数:
摘要: 用途说明 在使用bash命令行时,在提示符下,输入某个命令的前面几个字符,然后按TAB键,就会列出以这几个字符开头的命令供我们选择。不光如此,还可以进行参数补全,但只限于文件参数,当输入到参数部分时,按TAB键,就会列出以这个参数开头的文件路径供我们选择。Bash提供了一个complete内建命令,它的用途是规定参数怎么自动补全(Specify  how arguments to ea

用途说明

在使用bash命令行时,在提示符下,输入某个命令的前面几个字符,然后按TAB键,就会列出以这几个字符开头的命令供我们选择。不光如此,还可以进行参数补全,但只限于文件参数,当输入到参数部分时,按TAB键,就会列出以这个参数开头的文件路径供我们选择。Bash提供了一个complete内建命令,它的用途是规定参数怎么自动补全(Specify  how arguments to each name should be completed.)。它怎么使用在网上的资料都没怎么看见,man手册页不太想看,但是这个世界好人真的挺多,网站http://www.caliban.org/bash/ 提供了一个称之为bash-completion的软件包,通过一个复杂的脚本bash_completion实现可编程的补全程序,减少系统管理员日常维护工作,减少差错,提高工作效率。

 

常用参数

不用管参数了,只管在输入参数时按TAB键补全了。

使用示例

示例一 安装bash-completion的过程

[root@rhel55 ~]# type -a complete 
complete is a shell builtin   <== complete是一个Bash内建命令 
[root@rhel55 ~]#

[root@rhel55 ~]# cd setup/

下面用wget从 http://www.caliban.org/bash/ 下载源代码的rpm包。 
[root@rhel55 setup]# wget http://www.caliban.org/files/redhat/SRPMS/bash-completion-20060301-1.src.rpm 
--2010-10-28 13:32:20--  http://www.caliban.org/files/redhat/SRPMS/bash-completion-20060301-1.src.rpm
正在解析主机 www.caliban.org... 83.98.221.239
Connecting to www.caliban.org|83.98.221.239|:80... 已连接。
已发出 HTTP 请求,正在等待回应... 200 OK
长度:170596 (167K) [application/x-rpm]
Saving to: `bash-completion-20060301-1.src.rpm'

100%[==========================================================================================>] 170,596     91.0K/s   in 1.8s    

2010-10-28 13:32:23 (91.0 KB/s) - `bash-completion-20060301-1.src.rpm' saved [170596/170596]

[root@rhel55 setup]# ls -l bash-completion-20060301-1.src.rpm 
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 170596 2006-03-02 bash-completion-20060301-1.src.rpm
[root@rhel55 setup]# rpmbuild --rebuild bash-completion-20060301-1.src.rpm 
Installing bash-completion-20060301-1.src.rpm
warning: InstallSourcePackage: Header V3 DSA signature: NOKEY, key ID bfbaf0e8
warning: user ianmacd does not exist - using root
warning: group ianmacd does not exist - using root
warning: user ianmacd does not exist - using root
warning: group www does not exist - using root
Executing(%prep): /bin/sh -e /var/tmp/rpm-tmp.75172
+ umask 022
+ cd /usr/src/redhat/BUILD
+ LANG=C
+ export LANG
+ unset DISPLAY
+ cd /usr/src/redhat/BUILD
+ rm -rf bash_completion
+ /usr/bin/bzip2 -dc /usr/src/redhat/SOURCES/bash-completion-20060301.tar.bz2
+ tar -xvvf -
drwxrwxr-x ianmacd/ianmacd   0 2006-03-02 00:38:44 bash_completion/
drwxrwxr-x ianmacd/ianmacd   0 2006-03-01 18:45:13 bash_completion/contrib/
-rw-r--r-- ianmacd/ianmacd 748 2005-01-03 10:44:22 bash_completion/contrib/sitecopy
-rw-r--r-- ianmacd/ianmacd 261 2003-12-31 16:22:37 bash_completion/contrib/isql
-rw-r--r-- ianmacd/ianmacd 388 2002-06-13 06:03:23 bash_completion/contrib/bitkeeper
-rw-r--r-- ianmacd/ianmacd 442 2004-03-31 06:39:11 bash_completion/contrib/cksfv
-rw-r--r-- ianmacd/ianmacd 3621 2003-12-31 16:22:37 bash_completion/contrib/dsniff
-rw-r--r-- ianmacd/ianmacd 1254 2003-12-31 16:22:37 bash_completion/contrib/freeciv
-rw-r--r-- ianmacd/ianmacd  659 2003-12-31 16:22:37 bash_completion/contrib/gkrellm
-rw-r--r-- ianmacd/ianmacd 1230 2002-08-20 00:57:44 bash_completion/contrib/gnatmake
-rw-r--r-- ianmacd/ianmacd  258 2003-12-31 16:22:37 bash_completion/contrib/harbour
-rw-r--r-- ianmacd/ianmacd 1838 2003-12-31 16:22:37 bash_completion/contrib/larch
-rw-r--r-- ianmacd/ianmacd  163 2003-12-31 16:22:37 bash_completion/contrib/lilypond
-rw-r--r-- ianmacd/ianmacd 1917 2003-12-31 16:22:37 bash_completion/contrib/mcrypt
-rw-r--r-- ianmacd/ianmacd 1024 2004-01-01 08:54:41 bash_completion/contrib/mtx
-rw-r--r-- ianmacd/ianmacd 1164 2003-12-31 16:22:37 bash_completion/contrib/p4
-rw-r--r-- ianmacd/ianmacd 1696 2003-12-31 16:22:37 bash_completion/contrib/povray
-rw-r--r-- ianmacd/ianmacd 2613 2006-02-25 22:25:59 bash_completion/contrib/ri
-rw-r--r-- ianmacd/ianmacd  491 2003-12-31 16:22:37 bash_completion/contrib/unace
-rw-r--r-- ianmacd/ianmacd  608 2004-07-06 07:37:47 bash_completion/contrib/unrar
-rw-r--r-- ianmacd/ianmacd  406 2005-01-03 11:00:44 bash_completion/contrib/snownews
-rw-r--r-- ianmacd/ianmacd 8673 2004-03-31 07:05:34 bash_completion/contrib/mailman
-rw-r--r-- ianmacd/ianmacd  664 2004-03-31 07:05:45 bash_completion/contrib/sbcl
-rw-r--r-- ianmacd/ianmacd  644 2004-03-31 07:05:45 bash_completion/contrib/lisp
-rw-r--r-- ianmacd/ianmacd  669 2004-03-31 07:05:45 bash_completion/contrib/clisp
-rw-r--r-- ianmacd/ianmacd  603 2004-03-31 07:05:45 bash_completion/contrib/gcl
-rw-r--r-- ianmacd/ianmacd 6701 2006-03-01 18:45:03 bash_completion/contrib/svk
-rw-r--r-- ianmacd/ianmacd 2215 2005-07-12 01:49:14 bash_completion/contrib/modules
-rw-r--r-- ianmacd/ianmacd 1038 2004-10-17 16:22:09 bash_completion/contrib/bittorrent
-rw-r--r-- ianmacd/ianmacd 3019 2006-02-26 08:25:41 bash_completion/contrib/hg
-rw-r--r-- ianmacd/ianmacd 17992 2000-07-12 17:40:03 bash_completion/COPYING
-rw-r--r-- ianmacd/ianmacd   799 2003-05-01 13:49:58 bash_completion/BUGS
-rw-rw-r-- ianmacd/ianmacd 184573 2006-03-02 00:39:58 bash_completion/Changelog
-rw-r--r-- ianmacd/ianmacd  17005 2006-02-25 22:41:11 bash_completion/README
-rw-r--r-- ianmacd/ianmacd 215739 2006-03-02 00:20:18 bash_completion/bash_completion
-rwxr-xr-x ianmacd/ianmacd    557 2006-02-25 09:37:15 bash_completion/bash_completion.sh
-rw-r--r-- ianmacd/ianmacd   2528 2006-03-02 00:19:26 bash_completion/TODO
+ STATUS=0
+ '[' 0 -ne 0 ']'
+ cd bash_completion
++ /usr/bin/id -u
+ '[' 0 = 0 ']'
+ /bin/chown -Rhf root .
++ /usr/bin/id -u
+ '[' 0 = 0 ']'
+ /bin/chgrp -Rhf root .
+ /bin/chmod -Rf a+rX,u+w,g-w,o-w .
+ exit 0
Executing(%install): /bin/sh -e /var/tmp/rpm-tmp.75172
+ umask 022
+ cd /usr/src/redhat/BUILD
+ cd bash_completion
+ LANG=C
+ export LANG
+ unset DISPLAY
+ rm -rf /var/tmp/bash-completion-root bash-completion-ghosts.list
+ install -dm 0755 /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/etc/profile.d
+ install -dm 0755 /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/etc/bash_completion.d
+ install -pm 0644 bash_completion /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/etc/
+ sed -e s@/etc@/etc@g /usr/src/redhat/SOURCES/bash_completion.sh
+ touch -r /usr/src/redhat/SOURCES/bash_completion.sh /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/etc/profile.d/bash_completion.sh
+ install -dm 755 /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/usr/share/bash-completion
+ install -pm 644 contrib/bitkeeper contrib/bittorrent contrib/cksfv contrib/clisp contrib/dsniff contrib/freeciv contrib/gcl contrib/gkrellm contrib/gnatmake contrib/harbour contrib/hg contrib/isql contrib/larch contrib/lilypond contrib/lisp contrib/mailman contrib/mcrypt contrib/modules contrib/mtx contrib/p4 contrib/povray contrib/ri contrib/sbcl contrib/sitecopy contrib/snownews contrib/svk contrib/unace contrib/unrar /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/usr/share/bash-completion
+ cd contrib
+ for f in '*'
+ ln -s /usr/share/bash-completion/bitkeeper /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/etc/bash_completion.d
+ echo '%ghost /etc/bash_completion.d/bitkeeper'
+ for f in '*'
+ ln -s /usr/share/bash-completion/bittorrent /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/etc/bash_completion.d
+ echo '%ghost /etc/bash_completion.d/bittorrent'
+ for f in '*'
+ ln -s /usr/share/bash-completion/cksfv /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/etc/bash_completion.d
+ echo '%ghost /etc/bash_completion.d/cksfv'
+ for f in '*'
+ ln -s /usr/share/bash-completion/clisp /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/etc/bash_completion.d
+ echo '%ghost /etc/bash_completion.d/clisp'
+ for f in '*'
+ ln -s /usr/share/bash-completion/dsniff /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/etc/bash_completion.d
+ echo '%ghost /etc/bash_completion.d/dsniff'
+ for f in '*'
+ ln -s /usr/share/bash-completion/freeciv /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/etc/bash_completion.d
+ echo '%ghost /etc/bash_completion.d/freeciv'
+ for f in '*'
+ ln -s /usr/share/bash-completion/gcl /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/etc/bash_completion.d
+ echo '%ghost /etc/bash_completion.d/gcl'
+ for f in '*'
+ ln -s /usr/share/bash-completion/gkrellm /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/etc/bash_completion.d
+ echo '%ghost /etc/bash_completion.d/gkrellm'
+ for f in '*'
+ ln -s /usr/share/bash-completion/gnatmake /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/etc/bash_completion.d
+ echo '%ghost /etc/bash_completion.d/gnatmake'
+ for f in '*'
+ ln -s /usr/share/bash-completion/harbour /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/etc/bash_completion.d
+ echo '%ghost /etc/bash_completion.d/harbour'
+ for f in '*'
+ ln -s /usr/share/bash-completion/hg /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/etc/bash_completion.d
+ echo '%ghost /etc/bash_completion.d/hg'
+ for f in '*'
+ ln -s /usr/share/bash-completion/isql /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/etc/bash_completion.d
+ echo '%ghost /etc/bash_completion.d/isql'
+ for f in '*'
+ ln -s /usr/share/bash-completion/larch /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/etc/bash_completion.d
+ echo '%ghost /etc/bash_completion.d/larch'
+ for f in '*'
+ ln -s /usr/share/bash-completion/lilypond /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/etc/bash_completion.d
+ echo '%ghost /etc/bash_completion.d/lilypond'
+ for f in '*'
+ ln -s /usr/share/bash-completion/lisp /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/etc/bash_completion.d
+ echo '%ghost /etc/bash_completion.d/lisp'
+ for f in '*'
+ ln -s /usr/share/bash-completion/mailman /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/etc/bash_completion.d
+ echo '%ghost /etc/bash_completion.d/mailman'
+ for f in '*'
+ ln -s /usr/share/bash-completion/mcrypt /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/etc/bash_completion.d
+ echo '%ghost /etc/bash_completion.d/mcrypt'
+ for f in '*'
+ ln -s /usr/share/bash-completion/modules /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/etc/bash_completion.d
+ echo '%ghost /etc/bash_completion.d/modules'
+ for f in '*'
+ ln -s /usr/share/bash-completion/mtx /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/etc/bash_completion.d
+ echo '%ghost /etc/bash_completion.d/mtx'
+ for f in '*'
+ ln -s /usr/share/bash-completion/p4 /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/etc/bash_completion.d
+ echo '%ghost /etc/bash_completion.d/p4'
+ for f in '*'
+ ln -s /usr/share/bash-completion/povray /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/etc/bash_completion.d
+ echo '%ghost /etc/bash_completion.d/povray'
+ for f in '*'
+ ln -s /usr/share/bash-completion/ri /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/etc/bash_completion.d
+ echo '%ghost /etc/bash_completion.d/ri'
+ for f in '*'
+ ln -s /usr/share/bash-completion/sbcl /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/etc/bash_completion.d
+ echo '%ghost /etc/bash_completion.d/sbcl'
+ for f in '*'
+ ln -s /usr/share/bash-completion/sitecopy /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/etc/bash_completion.d
+ echo '%ghost /etc/bash_completion.d/sitecopy'
+ for f in '*'
+ ln -s /usr/share/bash-completion/snownews /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/etc/bash_completion.d
+ echo '%ghost /etc/bash_completion.d/snownews'
+ for f in '*'
+ ln -s /usr/share/bash-completion/svk /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/etc/bash_completion.d
+ echo '%ghost /etc/bash_completion.d/svk'
+ for f in '*'
+ ln -s /usr/share/bash-completion/unace /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/etc/bash_completion.d
+ echo '%ghost /etc/bash_completion.d/unace'
+ for f in '*'
+ ln -s /usr/share/bash-completion/unrar /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/etc/bash_completion.d
+ echo '%ghost /etc/bash_completion.d/unrar'
+ cd -
/usr/src/redhat/BUILD/bash_completion
+ /usr/lib/rpm/redhat/brp-compress
+ /usr/lib/rpm/redhat/brp-strip /usr/bin/strip
+ /usr/lib/rpm/redhat/brp-strip-static-archive /usr/bin/strip
+ /usr/lib/rpm/redhat/brp-strip-comment-note /usr/bin/strip /usr/bin/objdump
+ /usr/lib/rpm/brp-python-bytecompile
+ /usr/lib/rpm/redhat/brp-java-repack-jars
Processing files: bash-completion-20060301-1
Executing(%doc): /bin/sh -e /var/tmp/rpm-tmp.28530
+ umask 022
+ cd /usr/src/redhat/BUILD
+ cd bash_completion
+ DOCDIR=/var/tmp/bash-completion-root/usr/share/doc/bash-completion-20060301
+ export DOCDIR
+ rm -rf /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/usr/share/doc/bash-completion-20060301
+ /bin/mkdir -p /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/usr/share/doc/bash-completion-20060301
+ cp -pr BUGS COPYING README TODO Changelog /var/tmp/bash-completion-root/usr/share/doc/bash-completion-20060301
+ exit 0
Provides: config(bash-completion) = 20060301-1
Requires(interp): /bin/sh /bin/sh
Requires(rpmlib): rpmlib(CompressedFileNames) <= 3.0.4-1 rpmlib(PayloadFilesHavePrefix) <= 4.0-1
Requires(pre): /bin/sh
Requires: /bin/sh bash >= 2.05-12 config(bash-completion) = 20060301-1 fileutils grep sed textutils
Checking for unpackaged file(s): /usr/lib/rpm/check-files /var/tmp/bash-completion-root
Wrote: /usr/src/redhat/RPMS/noarch/bash-completion-20060301-1.noarch.rpm
Executing(%clean): /bin/sh -e /var/tmp/rpm-tmp.85514
+ umask 022
+ cd /usr/src/redhat/BUILD
+ cd bash_completion
+ rm -rf /var/tmp/bash-completion-root
+ exit 0
Executing(--clean): /bin/sh -e /var/tmp/rpm-tmp.85514
+ umask 022
+ cd /usr/src/redhat/BUILD
+ rm -rf bash_completion
+ exit 0
[root@rhel55 setup]#

使用rpmbuild编译后的rpm包在/usr/src/redhat/RPMS下,找到它,然后安装。

[root@rhel55 setup]# cd /usr/src/redhat/ 
BUILD/   RPMS/    SOURCES/ SPECS/   SRPMS/   
[root@rhel55 setup]# cd /usr/src/redhat/ RPMS/ 
[root@rhel55 RPMS]# find . -name "bash-completion*rpm" 
./noarch/bash-completion-20060301-1.noarch.rpm
[root@rhel55 RPMS]# rpm -ivh ./noarch/bash-completion-20060301-1.noarch.rpm 
Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
   1:bash-completion        ########################################### [100%]
[root@rhel55 RPMS]# rpm -qa | grep bash 
bash-3.2-24.el5
bash-completion-20060301-1
[root@rhel55 RPMS]# rpm -q bash-completion 
bash-completion-20060301-1
[root@rhel55 RPMS]#

[root@rhel55 RPMS]#

安装成功了,退出重新登录。 
[root@rhel55 RPMS]# exit 
logout
下面的粗体的 TAB 表示按TAB键补全。 
Last login: Thu Oct 28 13:19:28 2010 from 192.168.6.106
[root@rhel55 ~]# grep --TAB 
--after-context=       --count                --fixed-strings        --max-count=           --silent
--basic-regexp         --devices=             --help                 --mmap                 --unix-byte-offsets
--before-context=      --directories=         --ignore-case          --no-filename          --version
--binary               --exclude=             --include=             --no-messages          --with-filename
--binary-files=        --exclude-from=        --invert-match         --null                 --word-regexp
--byte-offset          --extended-regexp      --label=               --null-data            
--color                --file=                --line-buffered        --only-matching        
--colour               --files-with-matches   --line-number          --perl-regexp          
--context=             --files-without-match  --line-regexp          --regexp=              
[root@rhel55 ~]# cvs a TAB 
add       admin     annotate  
[root@rhel55 ~]# cvs a

示例二 在ssh命令后按tab键,bash会根据known_hosts中定义的主机自动补全

[root@web ~]# ssh 1TAB 92.168.6.1TAB 
192.168.6.11  192.168.6.12  
[root@web ~]# ssh 192.168.6.1

 

示例三 在service命令后按tab键,bash会自动根据/etc/init.d中的脚本名称自动补全

注意输入service命令之后输入空白再按TAB键,因为是用来补全参数的。如果输入service之后立即按TAB键,bash会认为是要补全命令。

[root@web ~]# service TAB 
Display all 100 possibilities? (y or n)
acpid               cvs                 hplip               mdmonitor           psacct              sshd
anacron             daytime-dgram       ip6tables           mdmpd               rawdevices          syslog
apmd                daytime-stream      ipmi                messagebus          rdisc               tcpmux-server
atd                 discard-dgram       iptables            microcode_ctl       readahead_early     tftp
auditd              discard-stream      irda                multipathd          readahead_later     time-dgram
autofs              dnsmasq             irqbalance          netconsole          restorecond         time-stream
avahi-daemon        dund                isdn                netfs               rhnsd               tomcat
avahi-dnsconfd      echo-dgram          jexec               netplugd            rmcp                vncserver
bluetooth           echo-stream         kdump               network             rpcgssd             wdaemon
capi                eklogin             killall             NetworkManager      rpcidmapd           winbind
chargen-dgram       ekrb5-telnet        klogin              nfs                 rpcsvcgssd          wpa_supplicant
chargen-stream      firstboot           krb524              nfslock             rsync               xfs
conman              gpm                 krb5-telnet         nscd                saslauthd           xinetd
cpuspeed            gssftp              kshell              ntpd                sendmail            ypbind
crond               haldaemon           kudzu               pand                setroubleshoot      yum-updatesd
cups                halt                lvm2-monitor        pcscd               single              
cups-config-daemon  hidd                mcstrans            portmap             smartd              
[root@web ~]# service

 

示例四 在cvs命令后按tab键,会显示cvs自带的指令

[root@web ~]# cvs TAB 
add        ci         diff       freeze     import     patch      rdiff      rm         tag        --version  
admin      co         -e         get        -l         -q         release    rtag       unedit     -w         
annotate   commit     edit       -H         log        -Q         remove     stat       up         -x         
-b         -d         export     --help     -n         -r         rfreeze    status     update     -z         
checkout   delete     -f         history    new        rcs        rlog       -t         -v         
[root@web ~]# cvs

问题思考

1. 查看/etc/bash-completion文件,还会发现哪些命令的参数可以自动补全?

2. 怎样自行扩展一些命令参数的补全方式?

相关资料

【1】在路上 bash complete

【2】Working more productively with bash 2.x/3.x Download

【3】比特网 提高Linux系统命令行的工作效率

 

返回 我使用过的Linux命令系列总目录

我使用过的Linux命令之complete - 强劲的bash参数补全功能

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一、vim python自动补全插件:pydiction 可以实现下面python代码的自动补全: 1.简单python关键词补
less 工 具也是对文件或其它输出进行分页显示的工具,应该说是linux正统查看文件内容的工具,功能极
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