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oracle9i学习[备忘1]

发表于: 2009-11-13   作者:dongwei_6688   来源:转载   浏览次数:
摘要: create database db01 maxlogfiles 10 maxdatafiles 1024 maxinstances 2 logfile GROUP 1 ('/u01/oradata/db01/log_01_db01.rdo') SIZE 15M, GROUP 2 ('/u01/oradata/db01/log_02_db01.rdo') SIZE 15M,

create database db01

maxlogfiles 10

maxdatafiles 1024

maxinstances 2

logfile

GROUP 1 ('/u01/oradata/db01/log_01_db01.rdo') SIZE 15M,

GROUP 2 ('/u01/oradata/db01/log_02_db01.rdo') SIZE 15M,

GROUP 3 ('/u01/oradata/db01/log_03_db01.rdo') SIZE 15M,

datafile 'u01/oradata/db01/system_01_db01.dbf') SIZE 100M,

undo tablespace UNDO

datafile '/u01/oradata/db01/undo_01_db01.dbf' SIZE 40M

default temporary tablespace TEMP

tempfile '/u01/oradata/db01/temp_01_db01.dbf' SIZE 20M

extent management local uniform size 128k

character set AL32UTE8

national character set AL16UTF16

set time_zone='America/New_York';

############### 数据字典 ##########

set wrap off

select * from v$dba_users;

grant select on table_name to user/rule;

select * from user_tables;

select * from all_tables;

select * from dba_tables;

revoke dba from user_name;

shutdown immediate

startup nomount

select * from v$instance;

select * from v$sga;

select * from v$tablespace;

alter session set nls_language=american;

alter database mount;

select * from v$database;

alter database open;

desc dictionary

select * from dict;

desc v$fixed_table;

select * from v$fixed_table;

set oracle_sid=foxconn

select * from dba_objects;

set serveroutput on

execute dbms_output.put_line('sfasd');

############# 控制文件 ###########

select * from v$database;

select * from v$tablespace;

select * from v$logfile;

select * from v$log;

select * from v$backup;

/*备份用户表空间*/

alter tablespace users begin backup;

select * from v$archived_log;

select * from v$controlfile;

alter system set control_files='$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/u01/ctrl01.ctl',

'$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/u01/ctrl02.ctl' scope=spfile;

cp $ORACLE_HOME/oradata/u01/ctrl01.ctl $ORACLE_HOME/oradata/u01/ctrl02.ctl

startup pfile='../initSID.ora'

select * from v$parameter where name like 'control%' ;

show parameter control;

select * from v$controlfile_record_section;

select * from v$tempfile;

/*备份控制文件*/

alter database backup controlfile to '../filepath/control.bak';

/*备份控制文件,并将二进制控制文件变为了asc 的文本文件*/

alter database backup controlfile to trace;

############### redo log ##############

archive log list;

alter system archive log start;--启动自动存档

alter system switch logfile;--强行进行一次日志switch

alter system checkpoint;--强制进行一次checkpoint

alter tablspace users begin backup;

alter tablespace offline;

/*checkpoint 同步频率参数FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET,同步频率越高,系统恢复所需时间越短*/

show parameter fast;

show parameter log_checkpoint;

/*加入一个日志组*/

alter database add logfile group 3 ('/$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.rdo' size 10M);

/*加入日志组的一个成员*/

alter database add logfile member '/$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.rdo' to group 3;

/*删除日志组:当前日志组不能删;活动的日志组不能删;非归档的日志组不能删*/

alter database drop logfile group 3;

/*删除日志组中的某个成员,但每个组的最后一个成员不能被删除*/

alter databse drop logfile member '$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.rdo';

/*清除在线日志*/

alter database clear logfile '$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.rdo';

alter database clear logfile group 3;

/*清除非归档日志*/

alter database clear unarchived logfile group 3;

/*重命名日志文件*/

alter database rename file '$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.rdo' to '$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6a.rdo';

show parameter db_create;

alter system set db_create_online_log_dest_1='path_name';

select * from v$log;

select * from v$logfile;

/*数据库归档模式到非归档模式的互换,要启动到mount状态下才能改变;startup mount;

然后再打开数据库.*/

alter database noarchivelog/archivelog;

achive log start;---启动自动归档

alter system archive all;--手工归档所有日志文件

select * from v$archived_log;

show parameter log_archive;

###### 分析日志文件logmnr ##############

1) 在init.ora中set utl_file_dir 参数

2) 重新启动oracle

3) create 目录文件

desc dbms_logmnr_d;

dbms_logmnr_d.build;

4) 加入日志文件 add/remove log file

dhms_logmnr.add_logfile

dbms_logmnr.removefile

5) start logmnr

dbms_logmnr.start_logmnr

6) 分析出来的内容查询 v$logmnr_content --sqlredo/sqlundo

实践:

desc dbms_logmnr_d;

/*对数据表做一些操作,为恢复操作做准备*/

update 表 set qty=10 where stor_id=6380;

delete 表 where stor_id=7066;

/***********************************/

utl_file_dir的路径

execute dbms_logmnr_d.build('foxdict.ora','$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/admin/fox/cdump');

execute dbms_logmnr.add_logfile('$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.log',dbms_logmnr.newfile);

execute dbms_logmnr.start_logmnr(dictfilename=>;'$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/admin/fox/cdump/foxdict.ora');

######### tablespace ##############

select * form v$tablespace;

select * from v$datafile;

/*表空间和数据文件的对应关系*/

select t1.name,t2.name from v$tablespace t1,v$datafile t2 where t1.ts#=t2.ts#;

alter tablespace users add datafile 'path' size 10M;

select * from dba_rollback_segs;

/*限制用户在某表空间的使用限额*/

alter user user_name quota 10m on tablespace_name;

create tablespace xxx [datafile 'path_name/datafile_name'] [size xxx] [extent management local/dictionary] [default storage(xxx)];

exmple: create tablespace userdata datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/userdata01.dbf' size 100M AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 5M MAXSIZE 200M;

create tablespace userdata datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/userdata01.dbf' size 100M extent management dictionary default storage(initial 100k next 100k pctincrease 10) offline;

/*9i以后,oracle建议使用local管理,而不使用dictionary管理,因为local采用bitmap管理表空间 ,不会产生系统表空间的自愿争用;*/

create tablespace userdata datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/userdata01.dbf' size 100M extent management local uniform size 1m;

create tablespace userdata datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/userdata01.dbf' size 100M extent management local autoallocate;

/*在创建表空间时,设置表空间内的段空间管理模式,这里用的是自动管理*/

create tablespace userdata datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/userdata01.dbf' size 100M extent management local uniform size 1m segment space management auto;

alter tablespace userdata mininum extent 10;

alter tablespace userdata default storage(initial 1m next 1m pctincrease 20);

/*undo tablespace(不能被用在字典管理模下) */

create undo tablespace undo1 datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo101.dbf' size 40M extent management local;

show parameter undo;

/*temporary tablespace*/

create temporary tablespace userdata tempfile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo101.dbf' size 10m extent management local;

*设置数据库缺省的临时表空间*/

alter database default temporary tablespace tablespace_name;

/*系统/临时/在线的undo表空间不能被offline*/

alter tablespace tablespace_name offline/online;

alter tablespace tablespace_name read only;

/*重命名用户表空间*/

alter tablespace tablespace_name rename datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo101.dbf' to '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo102.dbf';

/*重命名系统表空间 ,但在重命名前必须将数据库shutdown,并重启到mount状态*/

alter database rename file '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/system01.dbf' to '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/system02.dbf';

drop tablespace userdata including contents and datafiles;---drop tablespce

/*resize tablespace,autoextend datafile space*/

alter database datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo102.dbf' autoextend on next 10m maxsize 500M;

/*resize datafile*/

alter database datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo102.dbf' resize 50m;

/*给表空间扩展空间*/

alter tablespace userdata add datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo102.dbf' size 10m;

/*将表空间设置成OMF状态*/

alter system set db_create_file_dest='$ORACLE_HOME/oradata';

create tablespace userdata;---use OMF status to create tablespace;

drop tablespace userdata;---user OMF status to drop tablespace;

select * from dba_tablespace/v$tablespace/dba_data_files;

/*将表的某分区移动到另一个表空间*/

alter table table_name move partition partition_name tablespace tablespace_name;

###### ORACLE storage structure and relationships #########

/*手工分配表空间段的分区(extend)大小*/

alter table kong.test12 allocate extent(size 1m datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo102.dbf');

alter table kong.test12 deallocate unused; ---释放表中没有用到的分区

show parameter db;

alter system set db_8k_cache_size=10m; ---配置8k块的内存空间块参数

select * from dba_extents/dba_segments/data_tablespace;

select * from dba_free_space/dba_data_file/data_tablespace;

/*数据对象所占用的字节数*/

select sum(bytes) from dba_extents where onwer='kong' and segment_name ='table_name';

############ UNDO Data ################

show parameter undo;

alter tablespace users offline normal;

alter tablespace users offline immediate;

recover datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo102.dbf';

alter tablespace users online ;

select * from dba_rollback_segs;

alter system set undo_tablespace=undotbs1;

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