There’s plenty more I could talk about regarding the CBO CPU costing model and system statistics but I’ll make this my final little comment on this subject for now.
As previously discussed, the CPU costing model basically takes the time it takes to perform the all necessary I/O related activities and all the time it takes to perform all necessary CPU related activities and adds them together to get the overall time to complete a task. The CBO then takes this total and divides it by the average time to perform a single block I/O so that it expresses the overall costs in units of single block I/Os.
There are two advantages with expressing CBO costs in this manner.
Firstly, it makes the move from the old I/O costing model a little easier in that the “units” of cost under both CBO costing models is very similar.
With the I/O costing model, the unit of cost was also basically the number of I/Os. It’s just that the CBO made no (automatic) distinction between the I/O costs associated with single and multiblock reads. The cost was simply the expected total number of I/Os for a given execution plan, with single block and multiblock I/Os being consider the same (unless the optimiser_index_cost_adj parameter kicked in).
With the CPU costing modelling, the costs are expressed specifically in units of single block I/Os. However, the CBO automatically takes into consideration and differentiates the relative costs associated with multiblock I/Os (and CPU operations) and incorporates them automatically into the final cost.
The other nice advantage is that one can use the actual cost values as an indication of how long an operation or execution plan is likely to take. The overall execution times of the plan are divided by the average time of a single block I/O when using the CPU costing formula. Therefore by multiplying these cost values out again by the average time of a single block I/O (SREADTIM system statistic), one can have an indicative idea of the overall expected execution time.
The overall execution times as estimated by the CBO using the CPU costing model is therefore basically = cost of execution plan multiplied by SREADTIM system statistic.
Using my previous example with the FTS where the overall cost of the execution plan was 70, and the SREADTIM system statistic was 5:
the overall execution time as estimated by the CBO is approximately 70 x 5 = 350 ms.
Now this of course is only an indicative value. As all system related statistics are simply averages, there could obviously be discrepancies with how long specific I/Os take to actually perform, the size and number of specific multiblock read operations, etc. There may also be caching characteristics of objects that may influence the actual number of physical reads and associated wait times, it doesn’t take into consideration time taken to actually return data to the “client”, etc. etc. etc.
However, it provides one with a rough “ballpark figure”. If the actual executions times in the above example were (say) 20 seconds, then it’s a strong indication that the CBO may have got it wrong, that it may have calculated the wrong cost and maybe as a result the wrong execution plan. Somewhere, something such as the segment statistics, the system statistics, optimizer parameters, etc. may be inaccurate and is causing the CBO to get its costings incorrect.
The CBO cost value doesn’t compare well to reality and so is perhaps worthy of further investigation.
The cost values associated with CPU costing model is not some random, ambiguous, mysterious number but a value that can often be derived and which can be most useful in determining and resolving problematic SQL statements and execution plans.